U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Search results

Items: 1 to 20 of 44

1.

ALG1-congenital disorder of glycosylation

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) comprise a group of multisystem diseases with mostly severe psychomotor and mental retardation. Type I CDG comprises those disorders in which there are defects that affect biosynthesis of dolichol-linked oligosaccharides in the cytosol or the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), as well as defects involving the transfer of oligosaccharides onto nascent glycoproteins. Type II CDG comprises all defects of further trimming and elongation of N-linked oligosaccharides in the ER and Golgi (Schwarz et al., 2004). CDG1K is a type I CDG characterized by predominant neurologic involvement. Survival ranges from the second day of life to adulthood. The liver is affected in a minority of patients and shows hepatomegaly, edema, ascites, cholestatic jaundice, portal hypertension, and Budd-Chiari syndrome (summary by Marques-da-Silva et al., 2017). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
419308
Concept ID:
C2931005
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Early-onset myopathy with fatal cardiomyopathy

Salih myopathy is characterized by muscle weakness (manifest during the neonatal period or in early infancy) and delayed motor development; children acquire independent walking between ages 20 months and four years. In the first decade of life, global motor performance is stable or tends to improve. Moderate joint and neck contractures and spinal rigidity may manifest in the first decade but become more obvious in the second decade. Scoliosis develops after age 11 years. Cardiac dysfunction manifests between ages five and 16 years, progresses rapidly, and leads to death between ages eight and 20 years, usually from heart rhythm disturbances. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
435983
Concept ID:
C2673677
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, spondylodysplastic type, 2

The features of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome spondylodysplastic type 2 (EDSSPD2) include an aged appearance, developmental delay, short stature, craniofacial disproportion, generalized osteopenia, defective wound healing, hypermobile joints, hypotonic muscles, and loose but elastic skin (Okajima et al., 1999). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of the spondylodysplastic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, see 130070. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
815540
Concept ID:
C3809210
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy 3, autosomal recessive

Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy is characterized classically by the triad of weakness of the shoulder and pelvic girdle muscles, contractures of the elbows, neck, and Achilles tendon, and cardiac involvement, most commonly arrhythmias (summary by Jimenez-Escrig et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of EDMD, see 310300. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
413212
Concept ID:
C2750035
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Lipoic acid synthetase deficiency

Hyperglycinemia, lactic acidosis, and seizures (HGCLAS) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of hypotonia and seizures associated with increased serum glycine and lactate in the first days of life. Affected individuals develop an encephalopathy or severely delayed psychomotor development, which may result in death in childhood. The disorder represents a form of 'variant' nonketotic hyperglycinemia and is distinct from classic nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH, or GCE; 605899), which is characterized by significantly increased CSF glycine. Several forms of 'variant' NKH, including HGCLAS, appear to result from defects of mitochondrial lipoate biosynthesis (summary by Baker et al., 2014). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
482517
Concept ID:
C3280887
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Mandibular hypoplasia-deafness-progeroid syndrome

Mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, progeroid features, and lipodystrophy syndrome (MDPL) is an autosomal dominant systemic disorder characterized by prominent loss of subcutaneous fat, a characteristic facial appearance, and metabolic abnormalities including insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. Sensorineural deafness occurs late in the first or second decades of life (summary by Weedon et al., 2013). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
811623
Concept ID:
C3715192
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy 3

Autosomal recessive hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-3 (HLD3) is a severe neurologic disorder characterized by early infantile onset of global developmental delay, lack of development, lack of speech acquisition, and peripheral spasticity associated with decreased myelination in the central nervous system (summary by Feinstein et al., 2010). The disorder is phenotypically similar to X-linked Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD; 312080), which is caused by mutation in the PLP1 gene (300401). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HLD, see 312080. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
342403
Concept ID:
C1850053
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Myopathy, tubular aggregate, 1

Tubular aggregates in muscle, first described by Engel (1964), are structures of variable appearance consisting of an outer tubule containing either one or more microtubule-like structures or amorphous material. They are a nonspecific pathologic finding that may occur in a variety of circumstances, including alcohol- and drug-induced myopathies, exercise-induced cramps or muscle weakness, and inherited myopathies. Tubular aggregates are derived from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (Salviati et al., 1985) and are believed to represent an adaptive mechanism aimed at regulating an increased intracellular level of calcium in order to prevent the muscle fibers from hypercontraction and necrosis (Martin et al., 1997; Muller et al., 2001). Genetic Heterogeneity of Tubular Aggregate Myopathy See also TAM2 (615883), caused by mutation in the ORAI1 gene (610277) on chromosome 12q24. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
860163
Concept ID:
C4011726
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1F

Autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy-2 (LGMDD2) is a myopathy characterized by proximal muscle weakness primarily affecting the lower limbs, but also affecting the upper limbs in most patients. Affected individuals also have distal muscle weakness of the hands and lower leg muscles. There is variability in presentation and progression. Some patients present in early childhood with mildly delayed walking and difficulty running and jumping, whereas others present as adults with mainly pelvic-girdle weakness. Patients with early onset tend to have a more severe disorder, and may develop contractures, loss of independent ambulation, and respiratory insufficiency. Muscle biopsy shows dystrophic changes with abnormal nuclei, rimmed vacuoles, and filamentous inclusions (summary by Melia et al., 2013). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, see LGMDD1 (603511). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
333983
Concept ID:
C1842062
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Congenital ichthyosis-intellectual disability-spastic quadriplegia syndrome

ISQMR is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by ichthyosis apparent from birth, profound psychomotor retardation with essentially no development, spastic quadriplegia, and seizures (summary by Aldahmesh et al., 2011). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
482486
Concept ID:
C3280856
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Meester-Loeys syndrome

Meester-Loeys syndrome (MRLS) is an X-linked disorder characterized by early-onset aortic aneurysm and dissection. Other recurrent findings include hypertelorism, pectus deformity, joint hypermobility, contractures, and mild skeletal dysplasia (Meester et al., 2017). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
934778
Concept ID:
C4310811
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with intellectual disability), type B14

MDDGB14 is an autosomal recessive congenital muscular dystrophy characterized by severe muscle weakness apparent in infancy and impaired intellectual development. Some patients may have additional features, such as microcephaly, cardiac dysfunction, seizures, or cerebellar hypoplasia. It is part of a group of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (summary by Carss et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type B, see MDDGB1 (613155). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
815551
Concept ID:
C3809221
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Neonatal-onset encephalopathy with rigidity and seizures

Lethal neonatal rigidity and multifocal seizure syndrome (RMFSL) is a severe autosomal recessive epileptic encephalopathy characterized by onset of rigidity and intractable seizures at or soon after birth. Affected infants achieve no developmental milestones and die within the first months or years of life (summary by Saitsu et al., 2014). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
482659
Concept ID:
C3281029
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 12

MedGen UID:
1648343
Concept ID:
C4748873
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Hypotonia, infantile, with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies 1

Infantile hypotonia with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies (IHPRF) is a severe autosomal recessive neurologic disorder with onset at birth or in early infancy. Affected individuals show very poor, if any, normal cognitive development. Some patients are never learn to sit or walk independently (summary by Al-Sayed et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Infantile Hypotonia with Psychomotor Retardation and Characteristic Facies See also IHPRF2 (616801), caused by mutation in the UNC80 gene (612636) on chromosome 2q34; and IHPRF3 (616900), caused by mutation in the TBCK gene (616899) on chromosome 4q24. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
815784
Concept ID:
C3809454
Disease or Syndrome
16.

PERCHING syndrome

PERCHING syndrome is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by global developmental delay, dysmorphic facial features, feeding and respiratory difficulties with poor overall growth, axial hypotonia, and joint contractures. The features are variable, even within families, and may also include retinitis pigmentosa, cardiac or genitourinary anomalies, and abnormal sweating. Each letter of the PERCHING acronym represents 2 important phenotypic elements: Postural and Palatal abnormalities; Exophthalmos and Enteral-tube dependency/feeding issues; Respiratory distress and Retinitis pigmentosa; Contractures and Camptodactyly; Hypertelorism and Hirsutism; Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR)/growth failure and Intellectual disability/developmental delay; Nevus flammeus and Neurologic malformations; and facial Gestalt/grimacing and Genitourinary abnormalities (Jeffries et al., 2019). Death in infancy or early childhood often occurs, although survival to the third decade has been reported. Some of the features, such as contractures, dysmorphic craniofacial features, and severe feeding difficulties, are reminiscent of Bohring-Opitz syndrome (605039) (summary by Kanthi et al., 2019 and Buers et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
934709
Concept ID:
C4310742
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2Y

Autosomal recessive myopathy with rigid spine and distal joint contractures (MRRSDC) is characterized by onset of slowly progressive muscle weakness in the first or second decades of life. There is initial involvement of the proximal lower limbs, followed by distal upper and lower limb muscle weakness and atrophy. Other features include joint contractures, rigid spine, and restricted pulmonary function; some patients may have mild cardiac involvement (summary by Kayman-Kurekci et al., 2014). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1385152
Concept ID:
C4511482
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Hereditary spastic paraplegia 18

Spastic paraplegia-18B (SPG18B) is a severe autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset in early childhood of progressive spastic paraplegia resulting in motor disability. Most affected individuals have severe psychomotor retardation. Some may develop significant joint contractures (summary by Alazami et al., 2011 and Yildirim et al., 2011). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
442343
Concept ID:
C2749936
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Fowler syndrome

The proliferative vasculopathy and hydranencephaly-hydrocephaly syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive, usually prenatally lethal disorder characterized by hydranencephaly, a distinctive glomerular vasculopathy in the central nervous system and retina, and diffuse ischemic lesions of the brain stem, basal ganglia, and spinal cord with calcifications. It is usually diagnosed by ultrasound between 26 and 33 weeks' gestation (summary by Meyer et al., 2010). Rarely, affected individuals may survive, but are severely impaired with almost no neurologic development (Kvarnung et al., 2016). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
384026
Concept ID:
C1856972
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 1C

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1C is a severe autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by severe muscle weakness and failure to thrive apparent in the first months of life. Affected infants showed delayed psychomotor development, often with visual and hearing impairment, and may die of respiratory failure. Brain imaging typically shows cerebellar hypoplasia, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, and immature myelination (summary by Boczonadi et al., 2014). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1A (607596). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
863597
Concept ID:
C4015160
Disease or Syndrome
Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Supplemental Content

Find related data

Search details

See more...

Recent activity