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1.

Alagille syndrome due to a JAG1 point mutation

Alagille syndrome (ALGS) is a multisystem disorder with a wide spectrum of clinical variability; this variability is seen even among individuals from the same family. The major clinical manifestations of ALGS are bile duct paucity on liver biopsy, cholestasis, congenital cardiac defects (primarily involving the pulmonary arteries), butterfly vertebrae, ophthalmologic abnormalities (most commonly posterior embryotoxon), and characteristic facial features. Renal abnormalities, growth failure, developmental delays, splenomegaly, and vascular abnormalities may also occur. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
365434
Concept ID:
C1956125
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Saethre-Chotzen syndrome

Classic Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS) is characterized by coronal synostosis (unilateral or bilateral), facial asymmetry (particularly in individuals with unicoronal synostosis), strabismus, ptosis, and characteristic appearance of the ear (small pinna with a prominent superior and/or inferior crus). Syndactyly of digits two and three of the hand is variably present. Cognitive development is usually normal, although those with a large genomic deletion are at an increased risk for intellectual challenges. Less common manifestations of SCS include other skeletal findings (parietal foramina, vertebral segmentation defects, radioulnar synostosis, maxillary hypoplasia, ocular hypertelorism, hallux valgus, duplicated or curved distal hallux), hypertelorism, palatal anomalies, obstructive sleep apnea, increased intracranial pressure, short stature, and congenital heart malformations. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
64221
Concept ID:
C0175699
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Microcephaly, normal intelligence and immunodeficiency

Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is characterized by progressive microcephaly, early growth deficiency that improves with age, recurrent respiratory infections, an increased risk for malignancy (primarily lymphoma), and premature ovarian failure in females. Developmental milestones are attained at the usual time during the first year; however, borderline delays in development and hyperactivity may be observed in early childhood. Intellectual abilities tend to decline over time. Recurrent pneumonia and bronchitis may result in respiratory failure and early death. Other reported malignancies include solid tumors (e.g., medulloblastoma, glioma, rhabdomyosarcoma). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
140771
Concept ID:
C0398791
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Chromosome 2q32-q33 deletion syndrome

SATB2-associated syndrome (SAS) is a multisystem disorder characterized by significant neurodevelopmental compromise with limited to absent speech, behavioral issues, and craniofacial anomalies. All individuals described to date have manifest developmental delay / intellectual disability, with severe speech delay. Affected individuals often have hypotonia and feeding difficulties in infancy. Behavioral issues may include autistic features, hyperactivity, and aggressiveness. Craniofacial anomalies may include palatal abnormalities (cleft palate, high-arched palate, and bifid uvula), micrognathia, and abnormal shape or size of the upper central incisors. Less common features include skeletal anomalies (osteopenia, pectus deformities, kyphosis/lordosis, and scoliosis), growth restriction, strabismus/refractive errors, congenital heart defects, genitourinary anomalies, and epilepsy. While dysmorphic features have been described in individuals with this condition, these features are not typically distinctive enough to allow for a clinical diagnosis of SAS. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
436765
Concept ID:
C2676739
Disease or Syndrome
5.

X-linked intellectual disability with marfanoid habitus

MED12-related disorders include the phenotypes of FG syndrome type 1 (FGS1), Lujan syndrome (LS), X-linked Ohdo syndrome (XLOS), Hardikar syndrome (HS), and nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). FGS1 and LS share the clinical findings of cognitive impairment, hypotonia, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum. FGS1 is further characterized by absolute or relative macrocephaly, tall forehead, downslanted palpebral fissures, small and simple ears, constipation and/or anal anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, and characteristic behavior. LS is further characterized by large head, tall thin body habitus, long thin face, prominent nasal bridge, high narrow palate, and short philtrum. Carrier females in families with FGS1 and LS are typically unaffected. XLOS is characterized by intellectual disability, blepharophimosis, and facial coarsening. HS has been described in females with cleft lip and/or cleft palate, biliary and liver anomalies, intestinal malrotation, pigmentary retinopathy, and coarctation of the aorta. Developmental and cognitive concerns have not been reported in females with HS. Pathogenic variants in MED12 have been reported in an increasing number of males and females with NSID, with affected individuals often having clinical features identified in other MED12-related disorders. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
167096
Concept ID:
C0796022
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Alagille syndrome due to a NOTCH2 point mutation

Alagille syndrome (ALGS) is a multisystem disorder with a wide spectrum of clinical variability; this variability is seen even among individuals from the same family. The major clinical manifestations of ALGS are bile duct paucity on liver biopsy, cholestasis, congenital cardiac defects (primarily involving the pulmonary arteries), butterfly vertebrae, ophthalmologic abnormalities (most commonly posterior embryotoxon), and characteristic facial features. Renal abnormalities, growth failure, developmental delays, splenomegaly, and vascular abnormalities may also occur. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
341844
Concept ID:
C1857761
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Christianson syndrome

Christianson syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview), an X-linked disorder, is characterized in males by cognitive dysfunction, behavioral disorder, and neurologic findings (e.g., seizures, ataxia, postnatal microcephaly, and eye movement abnormalities). Males with CS typically present with developmental delay, later meeting criteria for severe intellectual disability (ID). Behaviorally, autism spectrum disorder and hyperactivity are common, and may resemble the behaviors observed in Angelman syndrome. Hypotonia and oropharyngeal dysphagia in infancy may result in failure to thrive. Seizures, typically beginning before age three years, can include infantile spasms and tonic, tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures. Subsequently, regression (e.g., loss of ambulation and ability to feed independently) may occur. Manifestations in heterozygous females range from asymptomatic to mild ID and/or behavioral issues. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
394455
Concept ID:
C2678194
Disease or Syndrome
8.

X-linked intellectual disability-cerebellar hypoplasia syndrome

X-linked intellectual deficit-cerebellar hypoplasia, also known as OPHN1 syndrome, is a rare syndromic form of cerebellar dysgenesis characterized by moderate to severe intellectual deficit and cerebellar abnormalities. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
336920
Concept ID:
C1845366
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Oculodentodigital dysplasia, autosomal recessive

Autosomal recessive form of oculodentodigital dysplasia. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
412708
Concept ID:
C2749477
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Hereditary spastic paraplegia 51

AP-4-associated hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), also known as AP-4 deficiency syndrome, is a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a progressive, complex spastic paraplegia with onset typically in infancy or early childhood. Early-onset hypotonia evolves into progressive lower-extremity spasticity. The majority of children become nonambulatory and usually wheelchair bound. Over time spasticity progresses to involve the upper extremities, resulting in a spastic tetraplegia. Associated complications include dysphagia, contractures, foot deformities, dysregulation of bladder and bowel function, and a pseudobulbar affect. About 50% of affected individuals have seizures. Postnatal microcephaly (usually in the -2SD to -3SD range) is common. All have developmental delay. Speech development is significantly impaired and many affected individuals remain nonverbal. Intellectual disability in older children is usually moderate to severe. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
462406
Concept ID:
C3151056
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Luscan-Lumish syndrome

Luscan-Lumish syndrome (LLS) is characterized by macrocephaly, intellectual disability, speech delay, low sociability, and behavioral problems. More variable features include postnatal overgrowth, obesity, advanced carpal ossification, developmental delay, and seizures (Luscan et al., 2014; Lumish et al., 2015) [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
898669
Concept ID:
C4085873
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Robinow-Sorauf syndrome

The signs and symptoms of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome vary widely, even among affected individuals in the same family. This condition can cause mild changes in the hands and feet, such as partial fusion of the skin between the second and third fingers on each hand and a broad or duplicated first (big) toe. Delayed development and learning difficulties have been reported, although most people with this condition are of normal intelligence. Less common signs and symptoms of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome include short stature, abnormalities of the bones of the spine (the vertebra), hearing loss, and heart defects.

Robinow-Sorauf syndrome is a condition with features similar to those of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, including craniosynostosis and broad or duplicated great toes. It was once considered a separate disorder, but was found to result from mutations in the same gene and is now thought to be a variant of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome.

Most people with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome have prematurely fused skull bones along the coronal suture, the growth line that goes over the head from ear to ear. Other parts of the skull may be malformed as well. These changes can result in an abnormally shaped head, a high forehead, a low frontal hairline, droopy eyelids (ptosis), widely spaced eyes, and a broad nasal bridge. One side of the face may appear noticeably different from the other (facial asymmetry). Most people with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome also have small, rounded ears.

Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by the premature fusion of certain skull bones (craniosynostosis). This early fusion prevents the skull from growing normally and affects the shape of the head and face. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
356703
Concept ID:
C1867146
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Short stature, microcephaly, and endocrine dysfunction

In patients with SSMED, short stature and microcephaly are apparent at birth, and there is progressive postnatal growth failure. Endocrine dysfunction, including hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, multinodular goiter, and diabetes mellitus, is present in affected adults. Progressive ataxia has been reported in some patients, with onset ranging from the second to fifth decade of life. In addition, a few patients have developed tumors, suggesting that there may be a predisposition to tumorigenesis. In contrast to syndromes involving defects in other components of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) complex (see, e.g., 606593), no clinically overt immunodeficiency has been observed in SSMED, although laboratory analysis has revealed lymphopenia or borderline leukopenia in some patients (Murray et al., 2015; Bee et al., 2015; de Bruin et al., 2015; Guo et al., 2015). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
895448
Concept ID:
C4225288
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Stapes ankylosis with broad thumbs and toes

This syndrome has characteristics of congenital conductive deafness due to stapes ankylosis, broad thumbs and first toes and hyperopia. So far, it has been described in multiple members of six families. Other skeletal malformations were also reported including short distal phalanges and syndactyly, but symphalangism is usually absent. Transmission is autosomal dominant and the syndrome is caused by mutations in the NOG gene (17q22). [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
357104
Concept ID:
C1866656
Disease or Syndrome
15.

X-linked intellectual disability, Cantagrel type

X-linked intellectual developmental disorder-98 (XLID98) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, poor speech, behavioral abnormalities, poor overall growth, dysmorphic facial features, and often early-onset seizures. Some carrier females are unaffected, whereas other females with mutations are affected; males tend to be more severely affected than females. It is believed that the phenotypic variability and disease manifestations in female carriers results from skewed X-inactivation or cellular mosaicism (summary by de Lange et al., 2016). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
813060
Concept ID:
C3806730
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 27

Intellectual developmental disorder with microcephaly and with or without ocular malformations or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IDDMOH) is characterized by mildly impaired intellectual development and microcephaly. Patients may also have ocular malformations, ocular apraxia, or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The disorder shows a unique DNA methylation signature (summary by Al-Jawahiri et al., 2022). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
862965
Concept ID:
C4014528
Disease or Syndrome
17.

THOC6-related developmental delay-microcephaly-facial dysmorphism syndrome

THOC6 intellectual disability syndrome is associated with moderate-to-severe developmental delay or intellectual disability; nonspecific dysmorphic facial features (tall forehead, deep-set eyes, short and upslanted palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, and long nose with low-hanging columella); microcephaly (typically 2-3 SD below the mean); teeth anomalies (dental caries, malocclusion, and supernumerary teeth); cardiac anomalies (most typically atrial and/or ventricular septal defects); prenatal ventriculomegaly and hydrocephalus; cryptorchidism in males; and renal malformations (most commonly unilateral renal agenesis). More rarely, affected individuals may have hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (in females), seizures, poor growth, feeding difficulties, hearing loss, refractive errors and/or other eye abnormalities, vertebral anomalies, micro/retrognathia, and imperforate / anteriorly placed anus. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
462289
Concept ID:
C3150939
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Hypotrichosis-lymphedema-telangiectasia-renal defect syndrome

Hypotrichosis-lymphedema-telangiectasia-renal defect syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by these 4 features, which begin in early childhood and are progressive (summary by Moalem et al., 2015). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1373459
Concept ID:
C4317151
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, dysmorphic facies, and skeletal anomalies, with or without seizures

Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, dysmorphic facies, and skeletal anomalies, with or without seizures (NEDFSS), is characterized by these features and global developmental delay with delayed or absent walking, moderate to severely impaired intellectual development, and poor or absent speech acquisition. Affected individuals may also have behavioral abnormalities. About half of patients develop various types of seizures that are usually well-controlled with medication. Rare patients are noted to have heat intolerance or insensitivity to pain (Lines et al., 2022). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1840880
Concept ID:
C5830244
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Arthrogryposis, distal, with impaired proprioception and touch

Distal arthrogryposis with impaired proprioception and touch is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by loss of certain mechanosensation modalities resulting in ataxia, difficulty walking, dysmetria, muscle weakness and atrophy, and progressive skeletal contractures. Patients have onset of symptoms in early childhood (summary by Chesler et al., 2016 and Delle Vedove et al., 2016). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
934659
Concept ID:
C4310692
Disease or Syndrome
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