U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Search results

Items: 17

1.

Holoprosencephaly 2

A rare disorder characterized by the partial separation of the cerebral hemispheres. It is associated with mutations in the SIX3 gene. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
322517
Concept ID:
C1834877
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Holoprosencephaly 7

Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most commonly occurring congenital structural forebrain anomaly in humans. HPE is associated with mental retardation and craniofacial malformations. Considerable heterogeneity in the genetic causes of HPE has been demonstrated (Ming et al., 2002). For general phenotypic information and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of holoprosencephaly, see HPE1 (236100). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
372134
Concept ID:
C1835820
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Holoprosencephaly 4

A rare disorder caused by mutations in the TGIF gene mapped to chromosome 18p11.3. It is characterized by semilobar holoprosencephaly, hypotelorism, and ptosis. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
374488
Concept ID:
C1840528
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Clubfoot

Clubfoot is a congenital limb deformity defined as fixation of the foot in cavus, adductus, varus, and equinus (i.e., inclined inwards, axially rotated outwards, and pointing downwards) with concomitant soft tissue abnormalities (Cardy et al., 2007). Clubfoot may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome (e.g., diastrophic dysplasia, 222600). Clubfoot has been reported with deficiency of long bones and mirror-image polydactyly (Gurnett et al., 2008; Klopocki et al., 2012). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
3130
Concept ID:
C0009081
Congenital Abnormality
5.

Holoprosencephaly 1

Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common structural malformation of the human forebrain and occurs after failed or abbreviated midline cleavage of the developing brain during the third and fourth weeks of gestation. HPE occurs in up to 1 in 250 gestations, but only 1 in 8,000 live births (Lacbawan et al., 2009). Classically, 3 degrees of severity defined by the extent of brain malformation have been described. In the most severe form, 'alobar HPE,' there is a single ventricle and no interhemispheric fissure. The olfactory bulbs and tracts and the corpus callosum are typically absent. In 'semilobar HPE,' the most common type of HPE in neonates who survive, there is partial cortical separation with rudimentary cerebral hemispheres and a single ventricle. In 'lobar HPE,' the ventricles are separated, but there is incomplete frontal cortical separation (Corsello et al., 1990). An additional milder form, called 'middle interhemispheric variant' (MIHV) has also been delineated, in which the posterior frontal and parietal lobes are incompletely separated and the corpus callosum may be hypoplastic (Lacbawan et al., 2009). Finally, microforms of HPE include a single maxillary median incisor or hypotelorism without the typical brain malformations (summary by Mercier et al., 2011). Cohen (2001) discussed problems in the definition of holoprosencephaly, which can be viewed from 2 different perspectives: anatomic (fixed) and genetic (broad). When the main interest is description, the anatomic perspective is appropriate. In genetic perspective, a fixed definition of holoprosencephaly is not appropriate because the same mutational cause may result in either holoprosencephaly or some microform of holoprosencephaly. Cohen (2001) concluded that both fixed and broad definitions are equally valid and depend on context. Munke (1989) provided an extensive review of the etiology and pathogenesis of holoprosencephaly, emphasizing heterogeneity. See also schizencephaly (269160), which may be part of the phenotypic spectrum of HPE. Genetic Heterogeneity of Holoprosencephaly Several loci for holoprosencephaly have been mapped to specific chromosomal sites and the molecular defects in some cases of HPE have been identified. Holoprosencephaly-1 (HPE1) maps to chromosome 21q22. See also HPE2 (157170), caused by mutation in the SIX3 gene (603714) on 2p21; HPE3 (142945), caused by mutation in the SHH gene (600725) on 7q36; HPE4 (142946), caused by mutation in the TGIF gene (602630) on 18p11; HPE5 (609637), caused by mutation in the ZIC2 gene (603073) on 13q32; HPE6 (605934), mapped to 2q37; HPE7 (610828), caused by mutation in the PTCH1 gene (601309) on 9q22; HPE8 (609408), mapped to 14q13; HPE9 (610829), caused by mutation in the GLI2 gene (165230) on 2q14; HPE10 (612530), mapped to 1q41-q42; HPE11 (614226), caused by mutation in the CDON gene (608707) on 11q24; HPE12 (618500), caused by mutation in the CNOT1 gene (604917) on 16q21; HPE13 (301043), caused by mutation in the STAG2 gene (300826) on Xq25; and HPE14 (619895), caused by mutation in the PLCH1 gene (612835) on 3q25. Wallis and Muenke (2000) gave an overview of mutations in holoprosencephaly. They indicated that at least 12 different loci had been associated with HPE. Mutations in genes involved in the multiprotein cohesin complex, including STAG2, have been shown to be involved in midline brain defects such as HPE. Mutations in some of those genes cause Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CDLS; see 122470), and some patients with severe forms of CDLS may have midline brain defects. See, for example, CDLS2 (300590), CDLS3 (610759), and CDLS4 (614701). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
78617
Concept ID:
C0266667
Congenital Abnormality
6.

Frontorhiny

A distinct syndromic type of frontonasal malformation with characteristics of hypertelorism, wide nasal bridge, broad columella, widened philtrum, widely separated narrow nares, poor development of nasal tip, midline notch of the upper alveolus, columella base swellings and a low hairline. Additional features reported in some include upper eyelid ptosis and midline dermoid cysts of craniofacial structures and philtral pits or rugose folding behind the ears. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
1803615
Concept ID:
C5574965
Congenital Abnormality
7.

Vici syndrome

With the current widespread use of multigene panels and comprehensive genomic testing, it has become apparent that the phenotypic spectrum of EPG5-related disorder represents a continuum. At the most severe end of the spectrum is classic Vici syndrome (defined as a neurodevelopmental disorder with multisystem involvement characterized by the combination of agenesis of the corpus callosum, cataracts, hypopigmentation, cardiomyopathy, combined immunodeficiency, microcephaly, and failure to thrive); at the milder end of the spectrum are attenuated neurodevelopmental phenotypes with variable multisystem involvement. Median survival in classic Vici syndrome appears to be 24 months, with only 10% of children surviving longer than age five years; the most common causes of death are respiratory infections as a result of primary immunodeficiency and/or cardiac insufficiency resulting from progressive cardiac failure. No data are available on life span in individuals at the milder end of the spectrum. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
340962
Concept ID:
C1855772
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Pelger-Huët anomaly

An autosomal dominant inherited condition caused by mutations in the lamin B receptor gene. It is characterized by defects in the neutrophil lobulation, resulting in the presence of dumbbell-shaped neutrophils with bilobed nuclei in the peripheral blood smear. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
10617
Concept ID:
C0030779
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Holoprosencephaly-postaxial polydactyly syndrome

Holoprosencephaly-postaxial polydactyly syndrome associates, in chromosomally normal neonates, holoprosencephaly, severe facial dysmorphism, postaxial polydactyly and other congenital abnormalities, suggestive of trisomy 13. Incidence is unknown. Dysmorphic features include hypotelorism, severe eye anomalies such as microphthalmia or anophthalmia, premaxillary region aplasia and cleft lip and palate. Congenital cardiac anomalies are common. The condition seems to be inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Prognosis is poor. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
340382
Concept ID:
C1849649
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Sweeney-Cox syndrome

Sweeney-Cox syndrome (SWCOS) is characterized by striking facial dysostosis, including hypertelorism, deficiencies of the eyelids and facial bones, cleft palate/velopharyngeal insufficiency, and low-set cupped ears (Kim et al., 2017). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1625659
Concept ID:
C4540299
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Type IV short rib polydactyly syndrome

Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). Patients with a clinical diagnosis of Beemer-Langer syndrome have been found to carry mutations in the IFT80 gene (611177); see SRTD2, 611263. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
96578
Concept ID:
C0432198
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia syndrome

Endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia (ECO) syndrome is characterized by various anomalies of the endocrine, cerebral, and skeletal systems resulting in neonatal mortality. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
390740
Concept ID:
C2675227
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2C

Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type IIC (ARCL2C) is characterized by generalized skin wrinkling with sparse subcutaneous fat and dysmorphic progeroid facial features. Most patients also exhibit severe hypotonia as well as cardiovascular involvement (summary by Van Damme et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive cutis laxa, see ARCL1A (219100). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1385755
Concept ID:
C4479387
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Holoprosencephaly 13, X-linked

X-linked holoprosencephaly-13 (HPE13) is a neurologic disorder characterized by midline developmental defects that mainly affect the brain and craniofacial structure. The severity and manifestations are variable: some patients may have full alobar HPE with cyclopia, whereas others have semilobar HPE or septooptic dysplasia. Dysmorphic features include microcephaly, hypotelorism, low-set ears, micrognathia, and cleft lip/palate. Patients with a more severe phenotype may die in the newborn period, whereas those with a less severe phenotype show global developmental delay. Additional variable features include congenital heart defects and vertebral anomalies. Phenotypic variability may be related to the type of mutation, X-inactivation status, and possible incomplete penetrance. The STAG2 protein is part of the multiprotein cohesin complex involved in chromatid cohesion during DNA replication and transcriptional regulation; HPE13 can thus be classified as a 'cohesinopathy' (summary by Kruszka et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of holoprosencephaly, see HPE1 (236100). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1714826
Concept ID:
C5393308
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Anencephaly 2

Anencephaly-2 (ANPH2) is a severe neural tube defect caused by failure of neural tube closure anteriorly. Features in addition to anencephaly may include frontonasal dysplasia with midline cleft of the upper lip and alveolar ridge, bifid nose, and clinical anophthalmia. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of anencephaly, see ANPH1 (206500). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1794155
Concept ID:
C5561945
Congenital Abnormality
16.

Holoprosencephaly-radial heart renal anomalies syndrome

This syndrome has characteristics of holoprosencephaly, predominantly radial limb deficiency (absent thumbs, phocomelia), heart defects, kidney malformations and absence of gallbladder. It has been described in two families (with at least seven affected persons). Variable manifestations include vertebral anomalies, cleft lip/palate, microphthalmia, absent nose, dysplastic ears, hearing loss, colobomas of the iris and retina and/or bifid uvula. Inheritance is likely to be autosomal dominant with variable expressivity. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
401047
Concept ID:
C1866649
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Median cleft palate

Cleft palate of the midline of the palate. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
340670
Concept ID:
C1850968
Congenital Abnormality; Finding
Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Supplemental Content

Find related data

Search details

See more...

Recent activity