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Items: 18

1.

Sotos syndrome

Sotos syndrome is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance (broad and prominent forehead with a dolichocephalic head shape, sparse frontotemporal hair, downslanting palpebral fissures, malar flushing, long and narrow face, long chin); learning disability (early developmental delay, mild-to-severe intellectual impairment); and overgrowth (height and/or head circumference =2 SD above the mean). These three clinical features are considered the cardinal features of Sotos syndrome. Major features of Sotos syndrome include behavioral problems (most notably autistic spectrum disorder), advanced bone age, cardiac anomalies, cranial MRI/CT abnormalities, joint hyperlaxity with or without pes planus, maternal preeclampsia, neonatal complications, renal anomalies, scoliosis, and seizures. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
61232
Concept ID:
C0175695
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 4

While most people with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are symptom-free or have only mild symptoms, this condition can have serious consequences. It can cause abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) that may be life threatening. People with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have an increased risk of sudden death, even if they have no other symptoms of the condition. A small number of affected individuals develop potentially fatal heart failure, which may require heart transplantation.

Nonfamilial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy tends to be milder. This form typically begins later in life than familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and affected individuals have a lower risk of serious cardiac events and sudden death than people with the familial form.

The symptoms of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are variable, even within the same family. Many affected individuals have no symptoms. Other people with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may experience chest pain; shortness of breath, especially with physical exertion; a sensation of fluttering or pounding in the chest (palpitations); lightheadedness; dizziness; and fainting.

In familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cardiac thickening usually occurs in the interventricular septum, which is the muscular wall that separates the lower left chamber of the heart (the left ventricle) from the lower right chamber (the right ventricle). In some people, thickening of the interventricular septum impedes the flow of oxygen-rich blood from the heart, which may lead to an abnormal heart sound during a heartbeat (heart murmur) and other signs and symptoms of the condition. Other affected individuals do not have physical obstruction of blood flow, but the pumping of blood is less efficient, which can also lead to symptoms of the condition. Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy often begins in adolescence or young adulthood, although it can develop at any time throughout life.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a heart condition characterized by thickening (hypertrophy) of the heart (cardiac) muscle. When multiple members of a family have the condition, it is known as familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy also occurs in people with no family history; these cases are considered nonfamilial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.  [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
350526
Concept ID:
C1861862
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Wrinkly skin syndrome

ATP6V0A2-related cutis laxa is characterized by generalized cutis laxa, findings associated with generalized connective tissue disorder, developmental delays, and a variety of neurologic findings including abnormality on brain MRI. At birth, hypotonia, overfolded skin, and distinctive facial features are present and enlarged fontanelles are often observed. During childhood, the characteristic facial features and thick or coarse hair may become quite pronounced. The skin findings decrease with age, although easy bruising and Ehlers-Danlos-like scars have been described in some. In most (not all) affected individuals, cortical and cerebellar malformations are observed on brain MRI. Nearly all affected individuals have developmental delays, seizures, and neurologic regression. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
98030
Concept ID:
C0406587
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism, type 1

Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I is a severe autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by dwarfism, microcephaly, and neurologic abnormalities, including mental retardation, brain malformations, and ocular/auditory sensory deficits. Patients often die in early childhood (summary by Pierce and Morse, 2012). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
347149
Concept ID:
C1859452
Congenital Abnormality
5.

Chromosome 1q21.1 deletion syndrome

The 1q21.1 recurrent microdeletion itself does not appear to lead to a clinically recognizable syndrome as some persons with the deletion have no obvious clinical findings and others have variable findings that most commonly include microcephaly (50%), mild intellectual disability (30%), mildly dysmorphic facial features, and eye abnormalities (26%). Other findings can include cardiac defects, genitourinary anomalies, skeletal malformations, and seizures (~15%). Psychiatric and behavioral abnormalities can include autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autistic features, and sleep disturbances. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
393913
Concept ID:
C2675897
Congenital Abnormality
6.

Atrioventricular septal defect 5

The term 'atrioventricular septal defect' (AVSD) covers a spectrum of congenital heart malformations characterized by a common atrioventricular junction coexisting with deficient atrioventricular septation. In ostium primum atrial septal defect (ASD) there are separate atrioventricular valvar orifices despite a common junction, whereas in complete AVSD the valve itself is also shared (summary by Craig, 2006). AVSD, also designated endocardial cushion defect or atrioventricular canal defect (AVCD), is known to occur in either a nonsyndromic (isolated) form or, more commonly, as part of a malformation syndrome. The 2 syndromes most frequently associated with AVSD are Down syndrome (190685), in which AVSD is the most frequent congenital heart defect, and Ivemark syndrome (208530) (summary by Carmi et al., 1992). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of atrioventricular septal defects, see AVSD1 (606215). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
482569
Concept ID:
C3280939
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
7.

Cardiospondylocarpofacial syndrome

Cardiospondylocarpofacial syndrome (CSCF) is characterized by growth retardation, dysmorphic facial features, brachydactyly with carpal-tarsal fusion, extensive posterior cervical vertebral synostosis, cardiac septal defects with valve dysplasia, and deafness with inner ear malformations (summary by Le Goff et al., 2016). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
444060
Concept ID:
C2931461
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Neurodevelopmental disorder and language delay with or without structural brain abnormalities

Houge-Janssens syndrome-3 (HJS3) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy. The phenotype is highly variable: patients may have hypotonia, behavioral abnormalities, and abnormalities on brain imaging, including enlarged ventricles, thin corpus callosum, and sometimes small brainstem. Many develop seizures, sometimes refractory, and some may have nonspecific dysmorphic features. Intellectual impairment can vary from mild to profound, and some patients may benefit from special education and respond well to speech therapy (summary by Reynhout et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HJS, see HJS1 (616355). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1677130
Concept ID:
C5193048
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Cardiac valvular defect, developmental

Cardiac valvular dysplasia-1 (CVDP1) is characterized by congenital malformations of the pulmonic, tricuspid, and mitral valves. Structural cardiac defects, including atrial and ventricular septal defects, single left ventricle, and hypoplastic right ventricle have also been observed in affected individuals (Ta-Shma et al., 2017). Genetic Heterogeneity of Cardiac Valvular Dysplasia CVDP2 (620067) is caused by mutation in the ADAMTS19 gene (607513) on chromosome 5q23. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1823949
Concept ID:
C5774175
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Sandestig-stefanova syndrome

Sandestig-Stefanova syndrome (SANDSTEF) is an autosomal recessive developmental syndrome characterized by pre- and postnatal microcephaly, trigonocephaly, congenital cataract, microphthalmia, facial gestalt, camptodactyly, loss of periventricular white matter, thin corpus callosum, delayed myelinization, and poor prognosis (Sandestig et al., 2019). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1718072
Concept ID:
C5394118
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Cardiomyopathy, dilated, 2D

Dilated cardiomyopathy-2D (CMD2D) is characterized by neonatal onset of severe cardiomyopathy, with rapid progression to cardiac decompensation and death unless the patient undergoes heart transplantation (Ganapathi et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of dilated cardiomyopathy, see 115200. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1782612
Concept ID:
C5543535
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Neurodevelopmental disorder with ataxia, hypotonia, and microcephaly

MedGen UID:
1684871
Concept ID:
C5231413
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and dysmorphic facies

Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and dysmorphic facies (NEDHYDF) is characterized by global developmental delay and hypotonia apparent from birth. Affected individuals have variably impaired intellectual development, often with speech delay and delayed walking. Seizures are generally not observed, although some patients may have single seizures or late-onset epilepsy. Most patients have prominent dysmorphic facial features. Additional features may include congenital cardiac defects (without arrhythmia), nonspecific renal anomalies, joint contractures or joint hyperextensibility, dry skin, and cryptorchidism. There is significant phenotypic variability in both the neurologic and extraneurologic manifestations (summary by Tan et al., 2022). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1794184
Concept ID:
C5561974
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Developmental delay with short stature, dysmorphic facial features, and sparse hair 2

Developmental delay with short stature, dysmorphic facial features, and sparse hair-2 (DEDSSH2) is an autosomal recessive syndromic disorder characterized by the constellation of these features apparent from infancy. Affected individuals may have other abnormalities, including congenital cardiac defects and distal skeletal anomalies (Hawer et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEDSSH2, see DEDSSH1 (616901). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1823996
Concept ID:
C5774223
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Cardiomyopathy, dilated, 2H

CMD2H is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by rapidly progressive dilated cardiomyopathy and death in early infancy (Verhagen et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of dilated cardiomyopathy, see 115200. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1824069
Concept ID:
C5774296
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Vertebral, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal, and limb defects

VCTERL syndrome is characterized by anomalies of the vertebrae, heart, trachea, esophagus, kidneys, and limbs. Some patients also exhibit craniofacial abnormalities. Incomplete penetrance and markedly variable disease expression have been observed, including intrafamilial variability (Martin et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1788069
Concept ID:
C5543189
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Neurodevelopmental disorder with poor growth, spastic tetraplegia, and hearing loss

Birk-Aharoni syndrome (BKAH) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, absent speech, spastic tetraplegia with central hypotonia, chorea, inability to walk, hearing loss, micropenis, undescended testes, and mildly elevated liver enzymes (Aharoni et al., 2022). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1824002
Concept ID:
C5774229
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Muscular ventricular septal defect

The trabecular septum is the largest part of the interventricular septum. It extends from the membranous septum to the apex and superiorly to the infundibular septum. A defect in the trabecular septum is called muscular VSD if the defect is completely rimmed by muscle. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
473253
Concept ID:
C0685707
Congenital Abnormality
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