U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Search results

Items: 18

1.

Wilson disease

Wilson disease is a disorder of copper metabolism that can present with hepatic, neurologic, or psychiatric disturbances, or a combination of these, in individuals ranging from age three years to older than 50 years; symptoms vary among and within families. Liver disease includes recurrent jaundice, simple acute self-limited hepatitis-like illness, autoimmune-type hepatitis, fulminant hepatic failure, or chronic liver disease. Neurologic presentations include movement disorders (tremors, poor coordination, loss of fine-motor control, chorea, choreoathetosis) or rigid dystonia (mask-like facies, rigidity, gait disturbance, pseudobulbar involvement). Psychiatric disturbance includes depression, neurotic behaviors, disorganization of personality, and, occasionally, intellectual deterioration. Kayser-Fleischer rings, frequently present, result from copper deposition in Descemet's membrane of the cornea and reflect a high degree of copper storage in the body. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
42426
Concept ID:
C0019202
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Autosomal dominant Parkinson disease 8

LRRK2 Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by features consistent with idiopathic PD: initial motor features of slowly progressive asymmetric tremor at rest and/or bradykinesia, cogwheel muscle rigidity, postural instability, and gait abnormalities that may include festination and freezing. Certain nonmotor symptoms in LRRK2-PD, especially REM sleep behavior disorder and cognitive decline, may occur at similar or slightly reduced frequency compared to typical idiopathic* PD. Onset is generally after age 50, although early-onset (in the 20s) and late-onset (in the 90s) disease has been described. * Idiopathic PD refers to the presence of signs and symptoms of PD for which the etiology is currently unknown and in which there is no known family history of PD. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
339628
Concept ID:
C1846862
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Dystonia 5

GTP cyclohydrolase 1-deficient dopa-responsive dystonia (GTPCH1-deficient DRD) is characterized by childhood-onset dystonia and a dramatic and sustained response to low doses of oral administration of levodopa. This disorder typically presents with gait disturbance caused by foot dystonia, later development of parkinsonism, and diurnal fluctuation of symptoms (aggravation of symptoms toward the evening and alleviation of symptoms in the morning after sleep). Initial symptoms are often gait difficulties attributable to flexion-inversion (equinovarus posture) of the foot. Occasionally, initial symptoms are arm dystonia, postural tremor of the hand, or slowness of movements. Brisk deep-tendon reflexes in the legs, ankle clonus, and/or the striatal toe (dystonic extension of the big toe) are present in many affected individuals. In general, gradual progression to generalized dystonia is observed. Intellectual, cerebellar, sensory, and autonomic disturbances generally do not occur. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
342121
Concept ID:
C1851920
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Kufor-Rakeb syndrome

Kufor-Rakeb syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive form of juvenile-onset atypical Parkinson disease (PARK9) associated with supranuclear gaze palsy, spasticity, and dementia. Some patients have neuroradiologic evidence of iron deposition in the basal ganglia, indicating that the pathogenesis of PARK9 can be considered among the syndromes of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA; see 234200) (summary by Bruggemann et al., 2010). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Parkinson disease (PD), see 168600. Biallelic mutation in the ATP13A2 gene also causes autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-78 (SPG78; 617225), an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder with overlapping features. Patients with SPG78 have later onset and prominent spasticity, but rarely parkinsonism. Loss of ATP13A2 function results in a multidimensional spectrum of neurologic features reflecting various regions of the brain and nervous system, including cortical, pyramidal, extrapyramidal, brainstem, cerebellar, and peripheral (summary by Estrada-Cuzcano et al., 2017). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
338281
Concept ID:
C1847640
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal dominant 1

POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life and about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called "chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus," or "CPEO+"). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
371919
Concept ID:
C1834846
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Autosomal recessive DOPA responsive dystonia

Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) deficiency is associated with a broad phenotypic spectrum. Based on severity of symptoms/signs as well as responsiveness to levodopa therapy, clinical phenotypes caused by pathogenic variants in TH are divided into (1) TH-deficient dopa-responsive dystonia (the mild form of TH deficiency), (2) TH-deficient infantile parkinsonism with motor delay (the severe form), and (3) TH-deficient progressive infantile encephalopathy (the very severe form). In individuals with TH-deficient dopa-responsive dystonia (DYT5b, DYT-TH), onset is between age 12 months and 12 years; initial symptoms are typically lower-limb dystonia and/or difficulty in walking. Diurnal fluctuation of symptoms (worsening of the symptoms toward the evening and their alleviation in the morning after sleep) may be present. In most individuals with TH-deficient infantile parkinsonism with motor delay, onset is between age three and 12 months. In contrast to TH-deficient DRD, motor milestones are overtly delayed in this severe form. Affected infants demonstrate truncal hypotonia and parkinsonian symptoms and signs (hypokinesia, rigidity of extremities, and/or tremor). In individuals with TH-deficient progressive infantile encephalopathy, onset is before age three to six months. Fetal distress is reported in most. Affected individuals have marked delay in motor development, truncal hypotonia, severe hypokinesia, limb hypertonia (rigidity and/or spasticity), hyperreflexia, oculogyric crises, ptosis, intellectual disability, and paroxysmal periods of lethargy (with increased sweating and drooling) alternating with irritability. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
382128
Concept ID:
C2673535
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Parkinson disease 13, autosomal dominant, susceptibility to

Parkinson's disease can also affect emotions and thinking ability (cognition). Some affected individuals develop psychiatric conditions such as depression and visual hallucinations. People with Parkinson's disease also have an increased risk of developing dementia, which is a decline in intellectual functions including judgment and memory.

Often the first symptom of Parkinson's disease is trembling or shaking (tremor) of a limb, especially when the body is at rest. Typically, the tremor begins on one side of the body, usually in one hand. Tremors can also affect the arms, legs, feet, and face. Other characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease include rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and torso, slow movement (bradykinesia) or an inability to move (akinesia), and impaired balance and coordination (postural instability). These symptoms worsen slowly over time.

Generally, Parkinson's disease that begins after age 50 is called late-onset disease. The condition is described as early-onset disease if signs and symptoms begin before age 50. Early-onset cases that begin before age 20 are sometimes referred to as juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease.

Parkinson's disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. The disorder affects several regions of the brain, especially an area called the substantia nigra that controls balance and movement. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
343992
Concept ID:
C1853202
Finding
8.

Autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson disease 7

Parkinson's disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. The disorder affects several regions of the brain, especially an area called the substantia nigra that controls balance and movement.

Generally, Parkinson's disease that begins after age 50 is called late-onset disease. The condition is described as early-onset disease if signs and symptoms begin before age 50. Early-onset cases that begin before age 20 are sometimes referred to as juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease.

Often the first symptom of Parkinson's disease is trembling or shaking (tremor) of a limb, especially when the body is at rest. Typically, the tremor begins on one side of the body, usually in one hand. Tremors can also affect the arms, legs, feet, and face. Other characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease include rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and torso, slow movement (bradykinesia) or an inability to move (akinesia), and impaired balance and coordination (postural instability). These symptoms worsen slowly over time.

Parkinson's disease can also affect emotions and thinking ability (cognition). Some affected individuals develop psychiatric conditions such as depression and visual hallucinations. People with Parkinson's disease also have an increased risk of developing dementia, which is a decline in intellectual functions including judgment and memory. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
344049
Concept ID:
C1853445
Disease or Syndrome
9.

X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism

Individuals with X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP) have dystonia of varying severity and parkinsonism. XDP afflicts primarily Filipino men and, rarely, women. The mean age of onset in men is 39 years; the clinical course is highly variable with parkinsonism as the initial presenting sign, overshadowed by dystonia as the disease progresses. Features of parkinsonism include resting tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability, and severe shuffling gait. The dystonia develops focally, most commonly in the jaw, neck, trunk, and eyes, and less commonly in the limbs, tongue, pharynx, and larynx, the most characteristic being jaw dystonia often progressing to neck dystonia. Individuals with pure parkinsonism have non-disabling symptoms that are only slowly progressive; those who develop a combination of parkinsonism and dystonia can develop multifocal or generalized symptoms within a few years and die prematurely from pneumonia or intercurrent infections. Female carriers are mostly asymptomatic, though a small minority may manifest dystonia, parkinsonism, or chorea. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
326820
Concept ID:
C1839130
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Parkinsonian-pyramidal syndrome

Parkinson's disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. The disorder affects several regions of the brain, especially an area called the substantia nigra that controls balance and movement.

Generally, Parkinson's disease that begins after age 50 is called late-onset disease. The condition is described as early-onset disease if signs and symptoms begin before age 50. Early-onset cases that begin before age 20 are sometimes referred to as juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease.

Often the first symptom of Parkinson's disease is trembling or shaking (tremor) of a limb, especially when the body is at rest. Typically, the tremor begins on one side of the body, usually in one hand. Tremors can also affect the arms, legs, feet, and face. Other characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease include rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and torso, slow movement (bradykinesia) or an inability to move (akinesia), and impaired balance and coordination (postural instability). These symptoms worsen slowly over time.

Parkinson's disease can also affect emotions and thinking ability (cognition). Some affected individuals develop psychiatric conditions such as depression and visual hallucinations. People with Parkinson's disease also have an increased risk of developing dementia, which is a decline in intellectual functions including judgment and memory. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
337969
Concept ID:
C1850100
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Parkinson disease 11, autosomal dominant, susceptibility to

Parkinson's disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. The disorder affects several regions of the brain, especially an area called the substantia nigra that controls balance and movement.

Generally, Parkinson's disease that begins after age 50 is called late-onset disease. The condition is described as early-onset disease if signs and symptoms begin before age 50. Early-onset cases that begin before age 20 are sometimes referred to as juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease.

Often the first symptom of Parkinson's disease is trembling or shaking (tremor) of a limb, especially when the body is at rest. Typically, the tremor begins on one side of the body, usually in one hand. Tremors can also affect the arms, legs, feet, and face. Other characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease include rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and torso, slow movement (bradykinesia) or an inability to move (akinesia), and impaired balance and coordination (postural instability). These symptoms worsen slowly over time.

Parkinson's disease can also affect emotions and thinking ability (cognition). Some affected individuals develop psychiatric conditions such as depression and visual hallucinations. People with Parkinson's disease also have an increased risk of developing dementia, which is a decline in intellectual functions including judgment and memory. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
896658
Concept ID:
C4083045
Finding
12.

Parkinson disease 5, autosomal dominant, susceptibility to

Parkinson's disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. The disorder affects several regions of the brain, especially an area called the substantia nigra that controls balance and movement.

Generally, Parkinson's disease that begins after age 50 is called late-onset disease. The condition is described as early-onset disease if signs and symptoms begin before age 50. Early-onset cases that begin before age 20 are sometimes referred to as juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease.

Often the first symptom of Parkinson's disease is trembling or shaking (tremor) of a limb, especially when the body is at rest. Typically, the tremor begins on one side of the body, usually in one hand. Tremors can also affect the arms, legs, feet, and face. Other characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease include rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and torso, slow movement (bradykinesia) or an inability to move (akinesia), and impaired balance and coordination (postural instability). These symptoms worsen slowly over time.

Parkinson's disease can also affect emotions and thinking ability (cognition). Some affected individuals develop psychiatric conditions such as depression and visual hallucinations. People with Parkinson's disease also have an increased risk of developing dementia, which is a decline in intellectual functions including judgment and memory. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
462249
Concept ID:
C3150899
Finding
13.

Parkinson disease 24, autosomal dominant, susceptibility to

Parkinson disease-24 (PARK24) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by classic Parkinson disease features, including adult onset, asymmetric limb involvement initially, and slowly progressive motor dysfunction. PARK24 shows incomplete penetrance, consistent with the presence of the PSAP mutation being a susceptibility factor for development of the disease (Oji et al., 2020). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Parkinson disease, see 168600. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1794179
Concept ID:
C5561969
Finding
14.

Early-onset parkinsonism-intellectual disability syndrome

Waisman syndrome is an X-linked neurologic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, impaired intellectual development, and early-onset Parkinson disease (summary by Wilson et al., 2014). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
208674
Concept ID:
C0796195
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Parkinson disease 22, autosomal dominant

Any Parkinson disease in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CHCHD2 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
907886
Concept ID:
C4225238
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Parkinsonism with polyneuropathy

Parkinsonism with polyneuropathy (PKNPY) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by asymmetrical tremor-dependent parkinsonism. The age of onset ranges from the late forties to mid-sixties, and patients have a good response to levodopa (summary by Lin et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1783451
Concept ID:
C5543299
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Parkinson disease 25, autosomal recessive early-onset, with impaired intellectual development

Parkinson disease-25 (PARK25) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of parkinsonism in late childhood/adolescence and developmental delay/impaired intellectual development. Cognitive impairment is mild to moderate and nonprogressive (Fevga et al., 2023). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1845571
Concept ID:
C5882680
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Parkinsonism with favorable response to dopaminergic medication

Parkinsonism is a clinical syndrome that is a feature of a number of different diseases, including Parkinson disease itself, other neurodegenerative diseases such as progressive supranuclear palsy, and as a side-effect of some neuroleptic medications. Some but not all individuals with Parkinsonism show responsiveness to dopaminergic medication defined as a substantial reduction of amelioration of the component signs of Parkinsonism (including mainly tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability) upon administration of dopaminergic medication. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
375989
Concept ID:
C1846868
Disease or Syndrome; Finding
Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Supplemental Content

Find related data

Search details

See more...

Recent activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...