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1.

Atrial fibrillation, familial, 3

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac rhythm disturbance, affecting more than 2 million Americans, with an overall prevalence of 0.89%. The prevalence increases rapidly with age, to 2.3% between the ages of 40 and 60 years, and to 5.9% over the age of 65. The most dreaded complication is thromboembolic stroke (Brugada et al., 1997). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of atrial fibrillation, see 608583. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
373232
Concept ID:
C1837014
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 18

Any hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PLN gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
462615
Concept ID:
C3151265
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Brugada syndrome 7

Brugada syndrome is characterized by cardiac conduction abnormalities (ST segment abnormalities in leads V1-V3 on EKG and a high risk for ventricular arrhythmias) that can result in sudden death. Brugada syndrome presents primarily during adulthood, although age at diagnosis may range from infancy to late adulthood. The mean age of sudden death is approximately 40 years. Clinical presentations may also include sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS; death of a child during the first year of life without an identifiable cause) and sudden unexpected nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS), a typical presentation in individuals from Southeast Asia. Other conduction defects can include first-degree AV block, intraventricular conduction delay, right bundle branch block, and sick sinus syndrome. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
413472
Concept ID:
C2751088
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia 1

Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is characterized by episodic syncope occurring during exercise or acute emotion. The underlying cause of these episodes is the onset of fast ventricular tachycardia (bidirectional or polymorphic). Spontaneous recovery may occur when these arrhythmias self-terminate. In other instances, ventricular tachycardia may degenerate into ventricular fibrillation and cause sudden death if cardiopulmonary resuscitation is not readily available. The mean onset of symptoms (usually a syncopal episode) is between age seven and 12 years; onset as late as the fourth decade of life has been reported. If untreated, CPVT is highly lethal, as approximately 30% of affected individuals experience at least one cardiac arrest and up to 80% have one or more syncopal spells. Sudden death may be the first manifestation of the disease. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
351513
Concept ID:
C1631597
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Sick sinus syndrome 2, autosomal dominant

Sick sinus syndrome (also known as sinus node dysfunction) is a group of related heart conditions that can affect how the heart beats. "Sick sinus" refers to the sino-atrial (SA) node, which is an area of specialized cells in the heart that functions as a natural pacemaker. The SA node generates electrical impulses that start each heartbeat. These signals travel from the SA node to the rest of the heart, signaling the heart (cardiac) muscle to contract and pump blood. In people with sick sinus syndrome, the SA node does not function normally. In some cases, it does not produce the right signals to trigger a regular heartbeat. In others, abnormalities disrupt the electrical impulses and prevent them from reaching the rest of the heart.

Sick sinus syndrome occurs most commonly in older adults, although it can be diagnosed in people of any age. The condition increases the risk of several life-threatening problems involving the heart and blood vessels. These include a heart rhythm abnormality called atrial fibrillation, heart failure, cardiac arrest, and stroke.

Sick sinus syndrome tends to cause the heartbeat to be too slow (bradycardia), although occasionally the heartbeat is too fast (tachycardia). In some cases, the heartbeat rapidly switches from being too fast to being too slow, a condition known as tachycardia-bradycardia syndrome. Symptoms related to abnormal heartbeats can include dizziness, light-headedness, fainting (syncope), a sensation of fluttering or pounding in the chest (palpitations), and confusion or memory problems. During exercise, many affected individuals experience chest pain, difficulty breathing, or excessive tiredness (fatigue). Once symptoms of sick sinus syndrome appear, they usually worsen with time. However, some people with the condition never experience any related health problems. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
320273
Concept ID:
C1834144
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Atrial fibrillation, familial, 4

Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac rhythm disturbance, affecting more than 2 million Americans, with an overall prevalence of 0.89%. The prevalence increases rapidly with age, to 2.3% between the ages of 40 and 60 years, and to 5.9% over the age of 65. The most dreaded complication is thromboembolic stroke (Brugada et al., 1997). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of atrial fibrillation, see 608583. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
400041
Concept ID:
C1862394
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Atrial fibrillation, familial, 12

Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac rhythm disturbance, affecting more than 2 million Americans, with an overall prevalence of 0.89%. The prevalence increases rapidly with age, to 2.3% between the ages of 40 and 60 years, and to 5.9% over the age of 65. The most dreaded complication is thromboembolic stroke (Brugada et al., 1997). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial atrial fibrillation, see ATFB1 (608583). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
481325
Concept ID:
C3279695
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Atrial fibrillation, familial, 9

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac rhythm disturbance, affecting more than 2 million Americans, with an overall prevalence of 0.89%. The prevalence increases rapidly with age, to 2.3% between the ages of 40 and 60 years, and to 5.9% over the age of 65. The most dreaded complication is thromboembolic stroke (Brugada et al., 1997). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of atrial fibrillation, see 608583. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
462781
Concept ID:
C3151431
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Atrial fibrillation, familial, 7

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac rhythm disturbance, affecting more than 2 million Americans, with an overall prevalence of 0.89%. The prevalence increases rapidly with age, to 2.3% between the ages of 40 and 60 years, and to 5.9% over the age of 65. The most dreaded complication is thromboembolic stroke (Brugada et al., 1997). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of atrial fibrillation, see 608583. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
393658
Concept ID:
C2677106
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern

Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is a condition characterized by abnormal electrical pathways in the heart that cause a disruption of the heart's normal rhythm (arrhythmia).

The heartbeat is controlled by electrical signals that move through the heart in a highly coordinated way. A specialized cluster of cells called the atrioventricular node conducts electrical impulses from the heart's upper chambers (the atria) to the lower chambers (the ventricles). Impulses move through the atrioventricular node during each heartbeat, stimulating the ventricles to contract slightly later than the atria.

People with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome are born with an extra connection in the heart, called an accessory pathway, that allows electrical signals to bypass the atrioventricular node and move from the atria to the ventricles faster than usual. The accessory pathway may also transmit electrical impulses abnormally from the ventricles back to the atria. This extra connection can disrupt the coordinated movement of electrical signals through the heart, leading to an abnormally fast heartbeat (tachycardia) and other changes in heart rhythm. Resulting symptoms include dizziness, a sensation of fluttering or pounding in the chest (palpitations), shortness of breath, and fainting (syncope). In rare cases, arrhythmias associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome can lead to cardiac arrest and sudden death. The most common arrhythmia associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is called paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia.

Complications of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome can occur at any age, although some individuals born with an accessory pathway in the heart never experience any health problems associated with the condition.

Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome often occurs with other structural abnormalities of the heart or underlying heart disease. The most common heart defect associated with the condition is Ebstein anomaly, which affects the valve that allows blood to flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle (the tricuspid valve). Additionally, the heart rhythm problems associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome can be a component of several other genetic syndromes, including hypokalemic periodic paralysis (a condition that causes episodes of extreme muscle weakness), Pompe disease (a disorder characterized by the storage of excess glycogen), Danon disease (a condition that weakens the heart and skeletal muscles and causes intellectual disability), and tuberous sclerosis complex (a condition that results in the growth of noncancerous tumors in many parts of the body). [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
12162
Concept ID:
C0043202
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Short QT syndrome type 1

Short QT syndrome (SQT) is a cardiac channelopathy associated with a predisposition to atrial fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Patients have a structurally normal heart, but electrocardiography (ECG) exhibits abbreviated QTc (Bazett's corrected QT) intervals of less than 360 ms (summary by Moreno et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Short QT Syndrome Short QT syndrome-2 (SQT2; 609621) is caused by mutation in the KCNQ1 gene (607542). SQT3 (609622) is caused by mutation in the KCNJ2 gene (600681). SQT7 (620231) is caused by mutation in the SLC4A3 gene (106195). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
355891
Concept ID:
C1865020
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Atrial fibrillation, familial, 10

Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac rhythm disturbance, affecting more than 2 million Americans, with an overall prevalence of 0.89%. The prevalence increases rapidly with age, to 2.3% between the ages of 40 and 60 years, and to 5.9% over the age of 65. The most dreaded complication is thromboembolic stroke (Brugada et al., 1997). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of atrial fibrillation, see 608583. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
462814
Concept ID:
C3151464
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 12

Any hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CSRP3 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
393755
Concept ID:
C2677491
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Atrial fibrillation, familial, 13

Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac rhythm disturbance, affecting more than 2 million Americans, with an overall prevalence of 0.89%. The prevalence increases rapidly with age, to 2.3% between the ages of 40 and 60 years, and to 5.9% over the age of 65. The most dreaded complication is thromboembolic stroke (Brugada et al., 1997). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial atrial fibrillation, see ATFB1 (608583). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
815641
Concept ID:
C3809311
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Congenital muscular dystrophy due to LMNA mutation

LMNA-related congenital muscular dystrophy (L-CMD) is a condition that primarily affects muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles). It is part of a group of genetic conditions called congenital muscular dystrophies, which cause weak muscle tone (hypotonia) and muscle wasting (atrophy) beginning very early in life.

In people with L-CMD, muscle weakness becomes apparent in infancy or early childhood and can worsen quickly. The most severely affected infants develop few motor skills, and they are never able to hold up their heads, roll over, or sit. Less severely affected children may learn to sit, stand, and walk before muscle weakness becomes apparent. First the neck muscles weaken, causing the head to fall forward (dropped-head syndrome). As other skeletal muscles become weaker, these children may ultimately lose the ability to sit, stand, and walk unassisted.

Other features of L-CMD often include spinal rigidity and abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis and lordosis); joint deformities (contractures) that restrict movement, particularly in the hips and legs; and an inward-turning foot. People with L-CMD also have an increased risk of heart rhythm abnormalities (arrhythmias).

Over time, muscle weakness causes most infants and children with L-CMD to have trouble eating and breathing. The breathing problems result from restrictive respiratory insufficiency, which occurs when muscles in the chest are weakened and the ribcage becomes increasingly rigid. This problem can be life-threatening, and many affected children require support with a machine to help them breathe (mechanical ventilation). [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
413043
Concept ID:
C2750785
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Atrial fibrillation, familial, 14

Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac rhythm disturbance, affecting more than 2 million Americans, with an overall prevalence of 0.89%. The prevalence increases rapidly with age, to 2.3% between the ages of 40 and 60 years, and to 5.9% over the age of 65. The most dreaded complication is thromboembolic stroke (Brugada et al., 1997). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial atrial fibrillation, see ATFB1 (608583). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
815642
Concept ID:
C3809312
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Atrial standstill 1

Atrial standstill (AS) is a rare condition characterized by the absence of electrical and mechanical activity in the atria. On surface ECG, AS is distinguished by bradycardia, junctional (usually narrow complex) escape rhythm, and absence of the P wave. Nearly 50% of patients with AS experience syncope. AS can be persistent or transient, and diffuse or partial (summary by Fazelifar et al., 2005). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1646392
Concept ID:
C4551959
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Atrial fibrillation, familial, 18

Familial atrial fibrillation is an inherited abnormality of the heart's normal rhythm. Atrial fibrillation is characterized by episodes of uncoordinated electrical activity (fibrillation) in the heart's upper chambers (the atria), which cause a fast and irregular heartbeat. If untreated, this abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia) can lead to dizziness, chest pain, a sensation of fluttering or pounding in the chest (palpitations), shortness of breath, or fainting (syncope). Atrial fibrillation also increases the risk of stroke and sudden death. Complications of atrial fibrillation can occur at any age, although some people with this heart condition never experience any health problems associated with the disorder. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
934603
Concept ID:
C4310636
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome

Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome is an extremely rare conduction disorder characterized by a short PR interval (less than or equal to 120 ms) with normal QRS complex on electrocardiogram associated with the occurrence of episodes of atrial tachyarrythmias (e.g. atrial fibrillation, atrial tachycardia). [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
354734
Concept ID:
C1862387
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Sick sinus syndrome 4

Sick sinus syndrome-4 (SSS4) is characterized by early and progressive sinus node and atrioventricular conduction dysfunction. Patients show bradycardia and chronotropic incompetence, and may experience syncope. Atrioventricular conduction block ranges from mild to severe, and some patients also have intermittent atrial fibrillation. Many require implantation of a pacemaker, but sudden cardiac death has not been reported (Stallmeyer et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of sick sinus syndrome, see SSS1 (608567). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1794159
Concept ID:
C5561949
Disease or Syndrome
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