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Items: 5

1.

Congenital contractural arachnodactyly

Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) appears to comprise a broad phenotypic spectrum. Classic CCA is characterized by arachnodactyly; flexion contractures of multiple joints including elbows, knees, hips, ankles, and/or fingers; kyphoscoliosis (usually progressive); a marfanoid habitus (a long and slender build, dolichostenomelia, pectus deformity, muscular hypoplasia, highly arched palate); and abnormal "crumpled" ears. At the mildest end, parents who are diagnosed retrospectively upon evaluation of their more severely affected child may show a lean body build, mild arachnodactyly, mild contractures without impairment, and minor ear abnormalities. At the most severe end is "severe CCA with cardiovascular and/or gastrointestinal anomalies," a rare phenotype in infants with pronounced features of CCA (severe crumpling of the ears, arachnodactyly, contractures, congenital scoliosis, and/or hypotonia) and severe cardiovascular and/or gastrointestinal anomalies. Phenotypic expression can vary within and between families. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
67391
Concept ID:
C0220668
Congenital Abnormality
2.

Tatton-Brown-Rahman overgrowth syndrome

Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome (TBRS) is an overgrowth / intellectual disability syndrome characterized by length/height and/or head circumference =2 SD above the mean for age and sex, obesity / increased weight, intellectual disability that ranges from mild to severe, joint hypermobility, hypotonia, behavioral/psychiatric issues, kyphoscoliosis, and seizures. Individuals with TBRS have subtle dysmorphic features, including a round face with coarse features, thick horizontal low-set eyebrows, narrow (as measured vertically) palpebral fissures, and prominent upper central incisors. The facial gestalt is most easily recognizable in the teenage years. TBRS may be associated with an increased risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia. There are less clear associations with aortic root dilatation and increased risk of other hematologic and solid tumors. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
862982
Concept ID:
C4014545
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Macrocephaly/megalencephaly syndrome, autosomal recessive

Macrocephaly refers to an abnormally enlarged head inclusive of the scalp, cranial bones, and intracranial contents. Macrocephaly may be due to megalencephaly (true enlargement of the brain parenchyma), and the 2 terms are often used interchangeably in the genetic literature (reviews by Olney, 2007 and Williams et al., 2008). Autosomal recessive macrocephaly/megalencephaly syndrome is characterized by an enlarged cranium apparent at birth or in early childhood. Affected individuals have intellectual disability and may have dysmorphic facial features resulting from the macrocephaly (summary by Alfaiz et al., 2014). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
812742
Concept ID:
C3806412
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Prieto syndrome

Prieto syndrome (PRS) is an X-linked intellectual developmental disorder characterized by mildly to severely impaired intellectual development, developmental delay, autism spectrum disorder, or neuropsychiatric symptoms, variably accompanied by speech delay, epilepsy, microcephaly, structural brain defects, and minor facial anomalies (summary by Kury et al., 2022). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
374294
Concept ID:
C1839730
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Patellar subluxation

The kneecap normally is located within the groove termed trochlea on the distal femur and can slide up and down in it. Patellar subluxation refers to an unstable kneecap that does not slide centrally within its groove, i.e., a partial dislocation of the patella. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
163635
Concept ID:
C0857276
Pathologic Function
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