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1.

Costello syndrome

While the majority of individuals with Costello syndrome share characteristic findings affecting multiple organ systems, the phenotypic spectrum is wide, ranging from a milder or attenuated phenotype to a severe phenotype with early lethal complications. Costello syndrome is typically characterized by failure to thrive in infancy as a result of severe postnatal feeding difficulties; short stature; developmental delay or intellectual disability; coarse facial features (full lips, large mouth, full nasal tip); curly or sparse, fine hair; loose, soft skin with deep palmar and plantar creases; papillomata of the face and perianal region; diffuse hypotonia and joint laxity with ulnar deviation of the wrists and fingers; tight Achilles tendons; and cardiac involvement including: cardiac hypertrophy (usually typical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), congenital heart defect (usually valvar pulmonic stenosis), and arrhythmia (usually supraventricular tachycardia, especially chaotic atrial rhythm/multifocal atrial tachycardia or ectopic atrial tachycardia). Relative or absolute macrocephaly is typical, and postnatal cerebellar overgrowth can result in the development of a Chiari I malformation with associated anomalies including hydrocephalus or syringomyelia. Individuals with Costello syndrome have an approximately 15% lifetime risk for malignant tumors including rhabdomyosarcoma and neuroblastoma in young children and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in adolescents and young adults. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
108454
Concept ID:
C0587248
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Complete trisomy 21 syndrome

Down syndrome, the most frequent form of mental retardation caused by a microscopically demonstrable chromosomal aberration, is characterized by well-defined and distinctive phenotypic features and natural history. It is caused by triplicate state (trisomy) of all or a critical portion of chromosome 21. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
4385
Concept ID:
C0013080
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 1A (Zellweger)

Zellweger spectrum disorder (ZSD) is a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe to mild. While individual phenotypes (e.g., Zellweger syndrome [ZS], neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy [NALD], and infantile Refsum disease [IRD]) were described in the past before the biochemical and molecular bases of this spectrum were fully determined, the term "ZSD" is now used to refer to all individuals with a defect in one of the ZSD-PEX genes regardless of phenotype. Individuals with ZSD usually come to clinical attention in the newborn period or later in childhood. Affected newborns are hypotonic and feed poorly. They have distinctive facies, congenital malformations (neuronal migration defects associated with neonatal-onset seizures, renal cysts, and bony stippling [chondrodysplasia punctata] of the patella[e] and the long bones), and liver disease that can be severe. Infants with severe ZSD are significantly impaired and typically die during the first year of life, usually having made no developmental progress. Individuals with intermediate/milder ZSD do not have congenital malformations, but rather progressive peroxisome dysfunction variably manifest as sensory loss (secondary to retinal dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss), neurologic involvement (ataxia, polyneuropathy, and leukodystrophy), liver dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, and renal oxalate stones. While hypotonia and developmental delays are typical, intellect can be normal. Some have osteopenia; almost all have ameleogenesis imperfecta in the secondary teeth. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1648474
Concept ID:
C4721541
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome

Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome (BSTVS) is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by the furrowed skin disorder of cutis gyrata, acanthosis nigricans, craniosynostosis, craniofacial dysmorphism, digital anomalies, umbilical and anogenital abnormalities, and early death (summary by Przylepa et al., 1996). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
377668
Concept ID:
C1852406
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Yunis-Varon syndrome

Yunis-Varon syndrome (YVS) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skeletal defects, including cleidocranial dysplasia and digital anomalies, and severe neurologic involvement with neuronal loss. Enlarged cytoplasmic vacuoles are found in neurons, muscle, and cartilage. The disorder is usually lethal in infancy (summary by Campeau et al., 2013). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
341818
Concept ID:
C1857663
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Hypotonia with lactic acidemia and hyperammonemia

This syndrome is characterized by severe hypotonia, lactic acidemia and congenital hyperammonemia. It has been described in three newborns born to consanguineous parents. Ultrasound examination during the 36th week of pregnancy revealed generalized edema. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and tubulopathy developed within the first week of life and the infants died within the first month. The activities of enzymes in the mitochondrial respiratory chain were reduced in the muscles of the patients. Mutations were identified in the MRPS22 gene on chromosome 3q23, encoding a mitochondrial ribosomal protein [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
435972
Concept ID:
C2673642
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Noonan syndrome 2

Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
344290
Concept ID:
C1854469
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Ogden syndrome

Ogden syndrome (OGDNS) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by postnatal growth failure, severely delayed psychomotor development, variable dysmorphic features, and hypotonia. Many patients also have cardiac malformations or arrhythmias (summary by Popp et al., 2015). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
477078
Concept ID:
C3275447
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Frank-Ter Haar syndrome

The primary characteristics of the Frank-ter Haar syndrome (FTHS) are brachycephaly, wide fontanels, prominent forehead, hypertelorism, prominent eyes, macrocornea with or without glaucoma, full cheeks, small chin, bowing of the long bones, and flexion deformity of the fingers. Protruding, simple ears and prominent coccyx are also regarded as important diagnostic signs (summary by Maas et al., 2004). Borrone syndrome was described as a severe progressive multisystem disorder with features overlapping those of FTHS, including thick skin, acne conglobata, osteolysis, gingival hypertrophy, brachydactyly, camptodactyly, and mitral valve prolapse. Although it was initially thought to be a distinct phenotype, mutations in the FTHS-associated gene SH3PXD2B have been identified in patients diagnosed with Borrone syndrome. The earlier differential description was attributed to phenotypic variability as well as to differences in the ages at which patients were examined (Wilson et al., 2014). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
383652
Concept ID:
C1855305
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 2

A rare mitochondrial disorder due to a defect in mitochondrial protein synthesis characterized by severe intrauterine growth retardation, neonatal limb edema and redundant skin on the neck (hydrops), developmental brain defects (corpus callosum agenesis, ventriculomegaly), brachydactyly, dysmorphic facial features with low set ears, severe intractable neonatal lactic acidosis with lethargy, hypotonia, absent spontaneous movements and fatal outcome. Markedly decreased activity of complex I, II + III and IV in muscle and liver have been determined. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
400626
Concept ID:
C1864843
Disease or Syndrome
11.

MEND syndrome

Male EBP disorder with neurologic defects (MEND) is an X-linked recessive disorder representing a continuous phenotypic spectrum with variable manifestations associated with a defect in sterol biosynthesis. Features include intellectual disability, short stature, scoliosis, digital abnormalities, cataracts, and dermatologic abnormalities. Not all patients show all features, and the severity is highly variable. Molecular studies indicate that affected males are hemizygous for a nonmosaic hypomorphic EBP allele. Carrier females are generally clinically asymptomatic, but may show biochemical abnormalities (summary by Arnold et al., 2012 and Barboza-Cerda et al., 2014). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
905986
Concept ID:
C4085243
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Deletion of short arm of chromosome 18

The main clinical manifestations of chromosome 18p deletion syndrome are mental retardation, growth retardation, craniofacial dysmorphism including round face, dysplastic ears, wide mouth and dental anomalies, and abnormalities of the limbs, genitalia, brain, eyes, and heart. The round face characteristic in the neonatal period and childhood may change to a long face with linear growth of the height of the face (summary by Tsukahara et al., 2001). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
96604
Concept ID:
C0432442
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Congenital heart defects, dysmorphic facial features, and intellectual developmental disorder

CDK13-related disorder, reported in 43 individuals to date, is characterized in all individuals by developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID); nearly all individuals older than age one year display impaired verbal language skills (either absent or restricted speech). Other common findings are recognizable facial features in some individuals, behavioral problems (autism spectrum disorder or autistic traits/stereotypies, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder), feeding difficulties in infancy, structural cardiac defects, and seizures. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1385307
Concept ID:
C4479246
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Toriello-Carey syndrome

Toriello-Carey syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly disorder with variable systemic manifestations, most commonly including mental retardation, agenesis of the corpus callosum, postnatal growth delay, cardiac defects, usually septal defects, distal limb defects, and urogenital anomalies in affected males. Patients have facial dysmorphic features, micrognathia, including full cheeks, hypertelorism, flattened nasal bridge, anteverted nares, and short neck. Not all features are found in all patients and some patients may have additional features such as anal anomalies or hernias (summary by Toriello et al., 2003). In a review of the Toriello-Carey syndrome, Toriello et al. (2016) stated that while corpus callosum abnormalities and micrognathia with highly arched or cleft palate are seen in most patients, other manifestations are widely variable. They noted that etiologic heterogeneity has been observed in reported patients, with at least 20% of patients having chromosome anomalies, and that no good candidate genes have been identified by exome sequencing. The authors commented that this condition might not be a unitary diagnostic entity. They recommended chromosome microarray for any child suspected of having the condition, followed by standard of care by genetic testing. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
163225
Concept ID:
C0796184
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Hydrocephalus, congenital, 3, with brain anomalies

MedGen UID:
1648319
Concept ID:
C4747885
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Short stature-brachydactyly-obesity-global developmental delay syndrome

A rare genetic, multiple congenital anomalies syndrome characterized by short stature, hand brachydactyly with hypoplastic distal phalanges, global development delay, intellectual disability, and more variably seizures, obesity, and craniofacial dysmorphism that includes microcephaly, high forehead, flat face, hypertelorism, deep set eyes, flat nasal bridge, averted nostrils, long philtrum, thin lip vermilion, and short neck. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
934656
Concept ID:
C4310689
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Multinucleated neurons-anhydramnios-renal dysplasia-cerebellar hypoplasia-hydranencephaly syndrome

MARCH is an autosomal recessive lethal congenital disorder characterized by severe hydranencephaly with almost complete absence of the cerebral hemispheres, which are replaced by fluid, relative preservation of the posterior fossa structures, and renal dysplasia or agenesis. Affected fetuses either die in utero or shortly after birth, and show arthrogryposis and features consistent with anhydramnios. Histologic examination of residual brain tissue shows multinucleated neurons resulting from impaired cytokinesis (summary by Frosk et al., 2017). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
343465
Concept ID:
C1856053
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Neurooculocardiogenitourinary syndrome

Neurooculocardiogenitourinary syndrome (NOCGUS) is a multisystem disorder characterized by poor growth and anomalies of the ocular, craniofacial, neurologic, cardiovascular, genitourinary, skeletal, and gastrointestinal systems. Lethality before 2 years of age has been observed (Reis et al., 2019). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1684841
Concept ID:
C5231443
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Cardiac, facial, and digital anomalies with developmental delay

CAFDADD is a multisystemic developmental disorder with variable cardiac and digital anomalies and facial dysmorphism. Some patients may have seizures and ocular/aural abnormalities (Tokita et al., 2018). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648330
Concept ID:
C4748484
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Acrofrontofacionasal dysostosis type 2

A very rare syndrome associating an acro-fronto-facio-nasal dysostosis with genitourinary anomalies. It has been described in three families. Craniofacial manifestations include wide anterior fontanelle, flat occiput, hypertelorism, ptosis, proptosis, broad nasal bridge and nasal tip, long philtrum and posteriorly rotated or low set ears. Hypospadias and shawl scrotum are present in all males. Acral manifestations include syndactyly of fingers, broad thumbs or halluces or preaxial polydactyly. The affected patients have no intellectual deficit. The condition seems to be hereditary, and transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
383797
Concept ID:
C1855904
Disease or Syndrome
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