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1.

Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia 1

Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is characterized by episodic syncope occurring during exercise or acute emotion. The underlying cause of these episodes is the onset of fast ventricular tachycardia (bidirectional or polymorphic). Spontaneous recovery may occur when these arrhythmias self-terminate. In other instances, ventricular tachycardia may degenerate into ventricular fibrillation and cause sudden death if cardiopulmonary resuscitation is not readily available. The mean onset of symptoms (usually a syncopal episode) is between age seven and 12 years; onset as late as the fourth decade of life has been reported. If untreated, CPVT is highly lethal, as approximately 30% of affected individuals experience at least one cardiac arrest and up to 80% have one or more syncopal spells. Sudden death may be the first manifestation of the disease. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
351513
Concept ID:
C1631597
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Sick sinus syndrome 2, autosomal dominant

Sick sinus syndrome (also known as sinus node dysfunction) is a group of related heart conditions that can affect how the heart beats. "Sick sinus" refers to the sino-atrial (SA) node, which is an area of specialized cells in the heart that functions as a natural pacemaker. The SA node generates electrical impulses that start each heartbeat. These signals travel from the SA node to the rest of the heart, signaling the heart (cardiac) muscle to contract and pump blood. In people with sick sinus syndrome, the SA node does not function normally. In some cases, it does not produce the right signals to trigger a regular heartbeat. In others, abnormalities disrupt the electrical impulses and prevent them from reaching the rest of the heart.

Sick sinus syndrome occurs most commonly in older adults, although it can be diagnosed in people of any age. The condition increases the risk of several life-threatening problems involving the heart and blood vessels. These include a heart rhythm abnormality called atrial fibrillation, heart failure, cardiac arrest, and stroke.

Sick sinus syndrome tends to cause the heartbeat to be too slow (bradycardia), although occasionally the heartbeat is too fast (tachycardia). In some cases, the heartbeat rapidly switches from being too fast to being too slow, a condition known as tachycardia-bradycardia syndrome. Symptoms related to abnormal heartbeats can include dizziness, light-headedness, fainting (syncope), a sensation of fluttering or pounding in the chest (palpitations), and confusion or memory problems. During exercise, many affected individuals experience chest pain, difficulty breathing, or excessive tiredness (fatigue). Once symptoms of sick sinus syndrome appear, they usually worsen with time. However, some people with the condition never experience any related health problems. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
320273
Concept ID:
C1834144
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Sick sinus syndrome 3, susceptibility to

Sick sinus syndrome may be encountered at any age but is primarily a disease of the elderly and is often secondary to other cardiac disorders when diagnosed in younger individuals. Symptoms are often intermittent and/or nonspecific and include dizziness, syncope, and heart failure. The only effective treatment for symptomatic and irreversible sinus node dysfunction is permanent cardiac pacing, and sick sinus syndrome remains the most common indication for permanent pacemaker implantation (summary by Holm et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of sick sinus syndrome, see SSS1 (608567). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
481421
Concept ID:
C3279791
Finding
4.

Sick sinus syndrome 1

The term 'sick sinus syndrome' encompasses a variety of conditions caused by sinus node dysfunction. The most common clinical manifestations are syncope, presyncope, dizziness, and fatigue. Electrocardiogram typically shows sinus bradycardia, sinus arrest, and/or sinoatrial block. Episodes of atrial tachycardias coexisting with sinus bradycardia ('tachycardia-bradycardia syndrome') are also common in this disorder. SSS occurs most often in the elderly associated with underlying heart disease or previous cardiac surgery, but can also occur in the fetus, infant, or child without heart disease or other contributing factors, in which case it is considered to be a congenital disorder (Benson et al., 2003). Genetic Heterogeneity of Sick Sinus Syndrome Sick sinus syndrome-2 (SSS2; 163800) is caused by mutation in the HCN4 gene (605206). Susceptibility to sick sinus syndrome-3 (SSS3; 614090) is influenced by variation in the MYH6 gene (160710). Sick sinus syndrome-4 (SSS4; 619464) is caused by mutation in the GNB2 gene (139390). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
325270
Concept ID:
C1837845
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Gnb5-related intellectual disability-cardiac arrhythmia syndrome

GNB5-related neurodevelopmental disorder (GNB5-NDD) is characterized by a spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes that range from severe-to-profound intellectual disability (ID; 31/41 reported individuals), to mild-to-moderate ID (5/41), to normal intellect with severe language disorder (5/41, one extended family). A unique and specific feature of GNB5-NDD – regardless of neurodevelopmental phenotype – is nearly universal bradycardia caused by sinoatrial node dysfunction (sick sinus syndrome). Most individuals with severe and profound ID have a developmental and epileptic encephalopathy with focal seizures or epileptic spasms, as well as visual impairment (central or retinal) with nystagmus, difficulty feeding, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. The risk of early mortality is increased. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1800300
Concept ID:
C5568877
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Language delay and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder/cognitive impairment with or without cardiac arrhythmia

GNB5-related neurodevelopmental disorder (GNB5-NDD) is characterized by a spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes that range from severe-to-profound intellectual disability (ID; 31/41 reported individuals), to mild-to-moderate ID (5/41), to normal intellect with severe language disorder (5/41, one extended family). A unique and specific feature of GNB5-NDD – regardless of neurodevelopmental phenotype – is nearly universal bradycardia caused by sinoatrial node dysfunction (sick sinus syndrome). Most individuals with severe and profound ID have a developmental and epileptic encephalopathy with focal seizures or epileptic spasms, as well as visual impairment (central or retinal) with nystagmus, difficulty feeding, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. The risk of early mortality is increased. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
934645
Concept ID:
C4310678
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Chronic atrial and intestinal dysrhythmia

Syndrome with characteristics of sick sinus syndrome and intestinal pseudo-obstruction. The heart and digestive issues develop at the same time, usually by age 20. The syndrome is caused by mutations in the SGO1 gene. This gene provides instructions for making part of a protein complex cohesin. This protein complex helps control the placement of chromosomes during cell division. Research suggests that SGO1 gene mutations may result in a cohesin complex that is less able to hold sister chromatids together, resulting in decreased chromosomal stability during cell division. This instability is thought to cause senescence of cells in the intestinal muscle and in the sinoatrial node, resulting in problems maintaining proper rhythmic movements of the heart and intestines. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
863911
Concept ID:
C4015474
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Heart-hand syndrome type 3

A very rare type of heart-hand syndrome described in three members of a Spanish family to date. The syndrome has characteristics of cardiac conduction defect (sick sinus, bundle-branch block) and brachydactyly, resembling brachydactyly type C of the hands, affecting principally the middle phalanges in conjunction with an extra ossicle on the proximal phalanx of both index fingers. Feet abnormalities are more subtle. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
333883
Concept ID:
C1841657
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Sinus node disease and myopia

MedGen UID:
401121
Concept ID:
C1866960
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Sick sinus syndrome

An abnormality involving the generation of the action potential by the sinus node and is characterized by an atrial rate inappropriate for physiological requirements. Manifestations include severe sinus bradycardia, sinus pauses or arrest, sinus node exit block, chronic atrial tachyarrhythmias, alternating periods of atrial bradyarrhythmias and tachyarrhythmias, and inappropriate responses of heart rate during exercise or stress. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
20749
Concept ID:
C0037052
Disease or Syndrome
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