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1.

Parkinson disease, late-onset

Parkinson's disease can also affect emotions and thinking ability (cognition). Some affected individuals develop psychiatric conditions such as depression and visual hallucinations. People with Parkinson's disease also have an increased risk of developing dementia, which is a decline in intellectual functions including judgment and memory.

Generally, Parkinson's disease that begins after age 50 is called late-onset disease. The condition is described as early-onset disease if signs and symptoms begin before age 50. Early-onset cases that begin before age 20 are sometimes referred to as juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease.

Often the first symptom of Parkinson's disease is trembling or shaking (tremor) of a limb, especially when the body is at rest. Typically, the tremor begins on one side of the body, usually in one hand. Tremors can also affect the arms, legs, feet, and face. Other characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease include rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and torso, slow movement (bradykinesia) or an inability to move (akinesia), and impaired balance and coordination (postural instability). These symptoms worsen slowly over time.

Parkinson's disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. The disorder affects several regions of the brain, especially an area called the substantia nigra that controls balance and movement. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
463618
Concept ID:
C3160718
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Prader-Willi syndrome

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by severe hypotonia and feeding difficulties in early infancy, followed in later infancy or early childhood by excessive eating and gradual development of morbid obesity (unless eating is externally controlled). Motor milestones and language development are delayed. All individuals have some degree of cognitive impairment. A distinctive behavioral phenotype (with temper tantrums, stubbornness, manipulative behavior, and obsessive-compulsive characteristics) is common. Hypogonadism is present in both males and females and manifests as genital hypoplasia, incomplete pubertal development, and, in most, infertility. Short stature is common (if not treated with growth hormone); characteristic facial features, strabismus, and scoliosis are often present. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
46057
Concept ID:
C0032897
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Williams syndrome

Williams syndrome (WS) is characterized by cardiovascular disease (elastin arteriopathy, peripheral pulmonary stenosis, supravalvar aortic stenosis, hypertension), distinctive facies, connective tissue abnormalities, intellectual disability (usually mild), a specific cognitive profile, unique personality characteristics, growth abnormalities, and endocrine abnormalities (hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypothyroidism, and early puberty). Feeding difficulties often lead to poor weight gain in infancy. Hypotonia and hyperextensible joints can result in delayed attainment of motor milestones. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
59799
Concept ID:
C0175702
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-III-A

Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III) is a multisystem lysosomal storage disease characterized by progressive central nervous system degeneration manifest as severe intellectual disability (ID), developmental regression, and other neurologic manifestations including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), behavioral problems, and sleep disturbances. Disease onset is typically before age ten years. Disease course may be rapidly or slowly progressive; some individuals with an extremely attenuated disease course present in mid-to-late adulthood with early-onset dementia with or without a history of ID. Systemic manifestations can include musculoskeletal problems (joint stiffness, contractures, scoliosis, and hip dysplasia), hearing loss, respiratory tract and sinopulmonary infections, and cardiac disease (valvular thickening, defects in the cardiac conduction system). Neurologic decline is seen in all affected individuals; however, clinical severity varies within and among the four MPS III subtypes (defined by the enzyme involved) and even among members of the same family. Death usually occurs in the second or third decade of life secondary to neurologic regression or respiratory tract infections. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
39264
Concept ID:
C0086647
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Smith-Magenis syndrome

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is characterized by distinctive physical features (particularly coarse facial features that progress with age), developmental delay, cognitive impairment, behavioral abnormalities, sleep disturbance, and childhood-onset abdominal obesity. Infants have feeding difficulties, failure to thrive, hypotonia, hyporeflexia, prolonged napping or need to be awakened for feeds, and generalized lethargy. The majority of individuals function in the mild-to-moderate range of intellectual disability. The behavioral phenotype, including significant sleep disturbance, stereotypies, and maladaptive and self-injurious behaviors, is generally not recognized until age 18 months or older and continues to change until adulthood. Sensory issues are frequently noted; these may include avoidant behavior, as well as repetitive seeking of textures, sounds, and experiences. Toileting difficulties are common. Significant anxiety is common as are problems with executive functioning, including inattention, distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Maladaptive behaviors include frequent outbursts / temper tantrums, attention-seeking behaviors, opposition, aggression, and self-injurious behaviors including self-hitting, self-biting, skin picking, inserting foreign objects into body orifices (polyembolokoilamania), and yanking fingernails and/or toenails (onychotillomania). Among the stereotypic behaviors described, the spasmodic upper-body squeeze or "self-hug" seems to be highly associated with SMS. An underlying developmental asynchrony, specifically emotional maturity delayed beyond intellectual functioning, may also contribute to maladaptive behaviors in people with SMS. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
162881
Concept ID:
C0795864
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-III-B

Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III) is a multisystem lysosomal storage disease characterized by progressive central nervous system degeneration manifest as severe intellectual disability (ID), developmental regression, and other neurologic manifestations including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), behavioral problems, and sleep disturbances. Disease onset is typically before age ten years. Disease course may be rapidly or slowly progressive; some individuals with an extremely attenuated disease course present in mid-to-late adulthood with early-onset dementia with or without a history of ID. Systemic manifestations can include musculoskeletal problems (joint stiffness, contractures, scoliosis, and hip dysplasia), hearing loss, respiratory tract and sinopulmonary infections, and cardiac disease (valvular thickening, defects in the cardiac conduction system). Neurologic decline is seen in all affected individuals; however, clinical severity varies within and among the four MPS III subtypes (defined by the enzyme involved) and even among members of the same family. Death usually occurs in the second or third decade of life secondary to neurologic regression or respiratory tract infections. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
88601
Concept ID:
C0086648
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-III-C

Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III) is a multisystem lysosomal storage disease characterized by progressive central nervous system degeneration manifest as severe intellectual disability (ID), developmental regression, and other neurologic manifestations including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), behavioral problems, and sleep disturbances. Disease onset is typically before age ten years. Disease course may be rapidly or slowly progressive; some individuals with an extremely attenuated disease course present in mid-to-late adulthood with early-onset dementia with or without a history of ID. Systemic manifestations can include musculoskeletal problems (joint stiffness, contractures, scoliosis, and hip dysplasia), hearing loss, respiratory tract and sinopulmonary infections, and cardiac disease (valvular thickening, defects in the cardiac conduction system). Neurologic decline is seen in all affected individuals; however, clinical severity varies within and among the four MPS III subtypes (defined by the enzyme involved) and even among members of the same family. Death usually occurs in the second or third decade of life secondary to neurologic regression or respiratory tract infections. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
39477
Concept ID:
C0086649
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 1

The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The lipopigment pattern seen most often in CLN1 is referred to as granular osmiophilic deposits (GROD). The patterns most often observed in CLN2 and CLN3 are 'curvilinear' and 'fingerprint' profiles, respectively. CLN4, CLN5, CLN6, CLN7, and CLN8 show mixed combinations of granular, curvilinear, fingerprint, and rectilinear profiles. The clinical course includes progressive dementia, seizures, and progressive visual failure (Mole et al., 2005). Zeman and Dyken (1969) referred to these conditions as the 'neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses.' Goebel (1995) provided a comprehensive review of the NCLs and noted that they are possibly the most common group of neurodegenerative diseases in children. Mole et al. (2005) provided a detailed clinical and genetic review of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. Genetic Heterogeneity of Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis See also CLN2 (204500), caused by mutation in the TPP1 gene (607998) on chromosome 11p15; CLN3 (204200), caused by mutation in the CLN3 gene (607042) on 16p12; CLN4 (162350), caused by mutation in the DNAJC5 gene (611203) on 20q13; CLN5 (256731), caused by mutation in the CLN5 gene (608102) on 13q22; CLN6A (601780) and CLN6B (204300), both caused by mutation in the CLN6 gene (606725) on 15q21; CLN7 (610951), caused by mutation in the MFSD8 gene (611124) on 4q28; CLN8 (600143) and the Northern epilepsy variant of CLN8 (610003), both caused by mutation in the CLN8 gene (607837) on 8p23; CLN10 (610127), caused by mutation in the CTSD gene (116840) on 11p15; CLN11 (614706), caused by mutation in the GRN gene (138945) on 17q21; CLN13 (615362), caused by mutation in the CTSF gene (603539) on 11q13; and CLN14 (611726), caused by mutation in the KCTD7 gene (611725) on 7q11. CLN9 (609055) has not been molecularly characterized. A disorder that was formerly designated neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-12 (CLN12) is now considered to be a variable form of Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS; 606693). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
340540
Concept ID:
C1850451
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Encephalopathy due to GLUT1 deficiency

The phenotypic spectrum of glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1 DS) is now known to be a continuum that includes the classic phenotype as well as paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia and epilepsy (previously known as dystonia 18 [DYT18]) and paroxysmal choreoathetosis with spasticity (previously known as dystonia 9 [DYT9]), atypical childhood absence epilepsy, myoclonic astatic epilepsy, and paroxysmal non-epileptic findings including intermittent ataxia, choreoathetosis, dystonia, and alternating hemiplegia. The classic phenotype is characterized by infantile-onset seizures, delayed neurologic development, acquired microcephaly, and complex movement disorders. Seizures in classic early-onset Glut1 DS begin before age six months. Several seizure types occur: generalized tonic or clonic, focal, myoclonic, atypical absence, atonic, and unclassified. In some infants, apneic episodes and abnormal episodic eye-head movements similar to opsoclonus may precede the onset of seizures. The frequency, severity, and type of seizures vary among affected individuals and are not related to disease severity. Cognitive impairment, ranging from learning disabilities to severe intellectual disability, is typical. The complex movement disorder, characterized by ataxia, dystonia, and chorea, may occur in any combination and may be continuous, paroxysmal, or continual with fluctuations in severity influenced by environmental factors such as fasting or with infectious stress. Symptoms often improve substantially when a ketogenic diet is started. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1645412
Concept ID:
C4551966
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-III-D

Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III) is a multisystem lysosomal storage disease characterized by progressive central nervous system degeneration manifest as severe intellectual disability (ID), developmental regression, and other neurologic manifestations including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), behavioral problems, and sleep disturbances. Disease onset is typically before age ten years. Disease course may be rapidly or slowly progressive; some individuals with an extremely attenuated disease course present in mid-to-late adulthood with early-onset dementia with or without a history of ID. Systemic manifestations can include musculoskeletal problems (joint stiffness, contractures, scoliosis, and hip dysplasia), hearing loss, respiratory tract and sinopulmonary infections, and cardiac disease (valvular thickening, defects in the cardiac conduction system). Neurologic decline is seen in all affected individuals; however, clinical severity varies within and among the four MPS III subtypes (defined by the enzyme involved) and even among members of the same family. Death usually occurs in the second or third decade of life secondary to neurologic regression or respiratory tract infections. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
88602
Concept ID:
C0086650
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Autosomal dominant Parkinson disease 1

Parkinson disease is the second most common neurogenic disorder after Alzheimer disease (AD; 104300), affecting approximately 1% of the population over age 50. Clinical manifestations include resting tremor, muscular rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. Additional features are characteristic postural abnormalities, dysautonomia, dystonic cramps, and dementia (Polymeropoulos et al., 1996). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Parkinson disease, see 168600. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
357008
Concept ID:
C1868595
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Dopa-responsive dystonia due to sepiapterin reductase deficiency

The phenotypic spectrum of sepiapterin reductase deficiency (SRD), which ranges from significant motor and cognitive deficits to only minimal findings, has not been completely elucidated. Clinical features in the majority of affected individuals include motor and speech delay, axial hypotonia, dystonia, weakness, and oculogyric crises; symptoms show diurnal fluctuation and sleep benefit. Other common features include parkinsonian signs (tremor, bradykinesia, masked facies, rigidity), limb hypertonia, hyperreflexia, intellectual disability, psychiatric and/or behavioral abnormalities, autonomic dysfunction, and sleep disturbances (hypersomnolence, difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, and drowsiness). Most affected individuals have nonspecific features in infancy including developmental delays and axial hypotonia; other features develop over time. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
120642
Concept ID:
C0268468
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Chromosome 2q32-q33 deletion syndrome

SATB2-associated syndrome (SAS) is a multisystem disorder characterized by significant neurodevelopmental compromise with limited to absent speech, behavioral issues, and craniofacial anomalies. All individuals described to date have manifest developmental delay / intellectual disability, with severe speech delay. Affected individuals often have hypotonia and feeding difficulties in infancy. Behavioral issues may include autistic features, hyperactivity, and aggressiveness. Craniofacial anomalies may include palatal abnormalities (cleft palate, high-arched palate, and bifid uvula), micrognathia, and abnormal shape or size of the upper central incisors. Less common features include skeletal anomalies (osteopenia, pectus deformities, kyphosis/lordosis, and scoliosis), growth restriction, strabismus/refractive errors, congenital heart defects, genitourinary anomalies, and epilepsy. While dysmorphic features have been described in individuals with this condition, these features are not typically distinctive enough to allow for a clinical diagnosis of SAS. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
436765
Concept ID:
C2676739
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Phelan-McDermid syndrome

Phelan-McDermid syndrome is characterized by neonatal hypotonia, absent to severely delayed speech, developmental delay, and minor dysmorphic facial features. Most affected individuals have moderate to profound intellectual disability. Other features include large fleshy hands, dysplastic toenails, and decreased perspiration that results in a tendency to overheat. Normal stature and normal head size distinguishes Phelan-McDermid syndrome from other autosomal chromosome disorders. Behavior characteristics include mouthing or chewing non-food items, decreased perception of pain, and autism spectrum disorder or autistic-like affect and behavior. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
339994
Concept ID:
C1853490
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Lubs type

MECP2 duplication syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by early-onset hypotonia, feeding difficulty, gastrointestinal manifestations including gastroesophageal reflux and constipation, delayed psychomotor development leading to severe intellectual disability, poor speech development, progressive spasticity, recurrent respiratory infections (in ~75% of affected individuals), and seizures (in ~50%). MECP2 duplication syndrome is 100% penetrant in males. Occasionally females have been described with a MECP2 duplication and a range of findings from mild intellectual disability to a phenotype similar to that seen in males. In addition to the core features, autistic behaviors, nonspecific neuroradiologic findings on brain MRI, mottled skin, and urogenital anomalies have been observed in several affected boys. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
337496
Concept ID:
C1846058
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Deficiency of aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase

Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency (AADCD) is an autosomal recessive inborn error in neurotransmitter metabolism that leads to combined serotonin and catecholamine deficiency (Abeling et al., 2000). The disorder is clinically characterized by vegetative symptoms, oculogyric crises, dystonia, and severe neurologic dysfunction, usually beginning in infancy or childhood (summary by Brun et al., 2010). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
220945
Concept ID:
C1291564
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Microcephaly with or without chorioretinopathy, lymphedema, or intellectual disability

Microcephaly with or without chorioretinopathy, lymphedema, or impaired intellectual development (MCLMR) is an autosomal dominant disorder that involves an overlapping but variable spectrum of central nervous system and ocular developmental anomalies. Microcephaly ranges from mild to severe and is often associated with mild to moderate developmental delay and a characteristic facial phenotype with upslanting palpebral fissures, broad nose with rounded tip, long philtrum with thin upper lip, prominent chin, and prominent ears. Chorioretinopathy is the most common eye abnormality, but retinal folds, microphthalmia, and myopic and hypermetropic astigmatism have also been reported, and some individuals have no overt ocular phenotype. Congenital lymphedema, when present, is typically confined to the dorsa of the feet, and lymphoscintigraphy reveals the absence of radioactive isotope uptake from the webspaces between the toes (summary by Ostergaard et al., 2012). Robitaille et al. (2014) found that MCLMR includes a broader spectrum of ocular disease, including retinal detachment with avascularity of the peripheral retina, and noted phenotypic overlap with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR; see EVR1, 133780). Birtel et al. (2017) observed intrafamilial and intraindividual variability in retinal phenotype, and noted that syndromic manifestations in some patients are too subtle to be detected during a routine ophthalmologic evaluation. Variable expressivity and reduced penetrance have also been observed in some families (Jones et al., 2014; Li et al., 2016). Autosomal recessive forms of microcephaly with chorioretinopathy have been reported (see 251270). See also Mirhosseini-Holmes-Walton syndrome (autosomal recessive microcephaly with pigmentary retinopathy and impaired intellectual development; 268050), which has been mapped to chromosome 8q21.3-q22.1. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
320559
Concept ID:
C1835265
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 7

The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL, or CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally (summary by Mole et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 (256730). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
325457
Concept ID:
C1838571
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 36

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-36 (DEE36) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the onset of seizures at a mean age of 6.5 months. Most patients present with infantile spasms associated with hypsarrhythmia on EEG, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. The seizures tend to be refractory to treatment, although some patients may respond to benzodiazepines or a ketogenic diet. Affected individuals have severely delayed psychomotor development with poor motor function, severe intellectual disability, poor or absent speech, and limited eye contact. More variable features include feeding difficulties sometimes requiring tube feeding, ocular defects including cortical visual impairment, dysmorphic facial features, and scoliosis or osteopenia. The vast majority of patients reported have been females, although rare affected males with a similar phenotype have been described. Most patients show normal N-glycosylation on transferrin isoelectric focusing, but some show abnormal N-glycosylation consistent with CDG type I (summary by Ng et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1382656
Concept ID:
C4317295
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Christianson syndrome

Christianson syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview), an X-linked disorder, is characterized in males by cognitive dysfunction, behavioral disorder, and neurologic findings (e.g., seizures, ataxia, postnatal microcephaly, and eye movement abnormalities). Males with CS typically present with developmental delay, later meeting criteria for severe intellectual disability (ID). Behaviorally, autism spectrum disorder and hyperactivity are common, and may resemble the behaviors observed in Angelman syndrome. Hypotonia and oropharyngeal dysphagia in infancy may result in failure to thrive. Seizures, typically beginning before age three years, can include infantile spasms and tonic, tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures. Subsequently, regression (e.g., loss of ambulation and ability to feed independently) may occur. Manifestations in heterozygous females range from asymptomatic to mild ID and/or behavioral issues. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
394455
Concept ID:
C2678194
Disease or Syndrome
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