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1.

Prader-Willi syndrome

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by severe hypotonia and feeding difficulties in early infancy, followed in later infancy or early childhood by excessive eating and gradual development of morbid obesity (unless eating is externally controlled). Motor milestones and language development are delayed. All individuals have some degree of cognitive impairment. A distinctive behavioral phenotype (with temper tantrums, stubbornness, manipulative behavior, and obsessive-compulsive characteristics) is common. Hypogonadism is present in both males and females and manifests as genital hypoplasia, incomplete pubertal development, and, in most, infertility. Short stature is common (if not treated with growth hormone); characteristic facial features, strabismus, and scoliosis are often present. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
46057
Concept ID:
C0032897
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Andersen Tawil syndrome

Andersen-Tawil syndrome (ATS) is characterized by a triad of: episodic flaccid muscle weakness (i.e., periodic paralysis); ventricular arrhythmias and prolonged QT interval; and anomalies including low-set ears, widely spaced eyes, small mandible, fifth-digit clinodactyly, syndactyly, short stature, and scoliosis. Affected individuals present in the first or second decade with either cardiac symptoms (palpitations and/or syncope) or weakness that occurs spontaneously following prolonged rest or following rest after exertion. Mild permanent weakness is common. Mild learning difficulties and a distinct neurocognitive phenotype (i.e., deficits in executive function and abstract reasoning) have been described. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
327586
Concept ID:
C1563715
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Autosomal recessive Robinow syndrome

ROR2-related Robinow syndrome is characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, skeletal abnormalities, and other anomalies. Craniofacial features include macrocephaly, broad prominent forehead, low-set ears, ocular hypertelorism, prominent eyes, midface hypoplasia, short upturned nose with depressed nasal bridge and flared nostrils, large and triangular mouth with exposed incisors and upper gums, gum hypertrophy, misaligned teeth, ankyloglossia, and micrognathia. Skeletal abnormalities include short stature, mesomelic or acromesomelic limb shortening, hemivertebrae with fusion of thoracic vertebrae, and brachydactyly. Other common features include micropenis with or without cryptorchidism in males and reduced clitoral size and hypoplasia of the labia majora in females, renal tract abnormalities, and nail hypoplasia or dystrophy. The disorder is recognizable at birth or in early childhood. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1770070
Concept ID:
C5399974
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Pitt-Hopkins syndrome

Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) is characterized by significant developmental delays with moderate-to-severe intellectual disability and behavioral differences, characteristic facial features, and episodic hyperventilation and/or breath-holding while awake. Speech is significantly delayed and most individuals are nonverbal with receptive language often stronger than expressive language. Other common findings are autism spectrum disorder symptoms, sleep disturbance, stereotypic hand movements, seizures, constipation, and severe myopia. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
370910
Concept ID:
C1970431
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 2

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-2 (DEE2) is an X-linked dominant severe neurologic disorder characterized by onset of seizures in the first months of life and severe global developmental delay resulting in impaired intellectual development and poor motor control. Other features include lack of speech development, subtle dysmorphic facial features, sleep disturbances, gastrointestinal problems, and stereotypic hand movements. There is some phenotypic overlap with Rett syndrome (312750), but DEE2 is considered to be a distinct entity (summary by Fehr et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1663579
Concept ID:
C4750718
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Congenital muscular hypertrophy-cerebral syndrome

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) encompasses a spectrum of findings from mild to severe. Severe (classic) CdLS is characterized by distinctive facial features, growth restriction (prenatal onset; <5th centile throughout life), hypertrichosis, and upper-limb reduction defects that range from subtle phalangeal abnormalities to oligodactyly (missing digits). Craniofacial features include synophrys, highly arched and/or thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, short nasal bridge with anteverted nares, small widely spaced teeth, and microcephaly. Individuals with a milder phenotype have less severe growth, cognitive, and limb involvement, but often have facial features consistent with CdLS. Across the CdLS spectrum IQ ranges from below 30 to 102 (mean: 53). Many individuals demonstrate autistic and self-destructive tendencies. Other frequent findings include cardiac septal defects, gastrointestinal dysfunction, hearing loss, myopia, and cryptorchidism or hypoplastic genitalia. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
315658
Concept ID:
C1802395
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Cornelia de Lange syndrome 5

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) encompasses a spectrum of findings from mild to severe. Severe (classic) CdLS is characterized by distinctive facial features, growth restriction (prenatal onset; <5th centile throughout life), hypertrichosis, and upper-limb reduction defects that range from subtle phalangeal abnormalities to oligodactyly (missing digits). Craniofacial features include synophrys, highly arched and/or thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, short nasal bridge with anteverted nares, small widely spaced teeth, and microcephaly. Individuals with a milder phenotype have less severe growth, cognitive, and limb involvement, but often have facial features consistent with CdLS. Across the CdLS spectrum IQ ranges from below 30 to 102 (mean: 53). Many individuals demonstrate autistic and self-destructive tendencies. Other frequent findings include cardiac septal defects, gastrointestinal dysfunction, hearing loss, myopia, and cryptorchidism or hypoplastic genitalia. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
763817
Concept ID:
C3550903
Disease or Syndrome
8.

X-linked intellectual disability-psychosis-macroorchidism syndrome

The spectrum of MECP2-related phenotypes in females ranges from classic Rett syndrome to variant Rett syndrome with a broader clinical phenotype (either milder or more severe than classic Rett syndrome) to mild learning disabilities; the spectrum in males ranges from severe neonatal encephalopathy to pyramidal signs, parkinsonism, and macroorchidism (PPM-X) syndrome to severe syndromic/nonsyndromic intellectual disability. Females: Classic Rett syndrome, a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder primarily affecting girls, is characterized by apparently normal psychomotor development during the first six to 18 months of life, followed by a short period of developmental stagnation, then rapid regression in language and motor skills, followed by long-term stability. During the phase of rapid regression, repetitive, stereotypic hand movements replace purposeful hand use. Additional findings include fits of screaming and inconsolable crying, autistic features, panic-like attacks, bruxism, episodic apnea and/or hyperpnea, gait ataxia and apraxia, tremors, seizures, and acquired microcephaly. Males: Severe neonatal-onset encephalopathy, the most common phenotype in affected males, is characterized by a relentless clinical course that follows a metabolic-degenerative type of pattern, abnormal tone, involuntary movements, severe seizures, and breathing abnormalities. Death often occurs before age two years. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
163232
Concept ID:
C0796222
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Cornelia de Lange syndrome 3

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) encompasses a spectrum of findings from mild to severe. Severe (classic) CdLS is characterized by distinctive facial features, growth restriction (prenatal onset; <5th centile throughout life), hypertrichosis, and upper-limb reduction defects that range from subtle phalangeal abnormalities to oligodactyly (missing digits). Craniofacial features include synophrys, highly arched and/or thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, short nasal bridge with anteverted nares, small widely spaced teeth, and microcephaly. Individuals with a milder phenotype have less severe growth, cognitive, and limb involvement, but often have facial features consistent with CdLS. Across the CdLS spectrum IQ ranges from below 30 to 102 (mean: 53). Many individuals demonstrate autistic and self-destructive tendencies. Other frequent findings include cardiac septal defects, gastrointestinal dysfunction, hearing loss, myopia, and cryptorchidism or hypoplastic genitalia. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
339902
Concept ID:
C1853099
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 36

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-36 (DEE36) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the onset of seizures at a mean age of 6.5 months. Most patients present with infantile spasms associated with hypsarrhythmia on EEG, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. The seizures tend to be refractory to treatment, although some patients may respond to benzodiazepines or a ketogenic diet. Affected individuals have severely delayed psychomotor development with poor motor function, severe intellectual disability, poor or absent speech, and limited eye contact. More variable features include feeding difficulties sometimes requiring tube feeding, ocular defects including cortical visual impairment, dysmorphic facial features, and scoliosis or osteopenia. The vast majority of patients reported have been females, although rare affected males with a similar phenotype have been described. Most patients show normal N-glycosylation on transferrin isoelectric focusing, but some show abnormal N-glycosylation consistent with CDG type I (summary by Ng et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1382656
Concept ID:
C4317295
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome 1

Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome (ADRS) is characterized by skeletal findings (short stature, mesomelic limb shortening predominantly of the upper limbs, and brachydactyly), genital abnormalities (in males: micropenis / webbed penis, hypoplastic scrotum, cryptorchidism; in females: hypoplastic clitoris and labia majora), dysmorphic facial features (widely spaced and prominent eyes, frontal bossing, anteverted nares, midface retrusion), dental abnormalities (including malocclusion, crowding, hypodontia, late eruption of permanent teeth), bilobed tongue, and occasional prenatal macrocephaly that persists postnatally. Less common findings include renal anomalies, radial head dislocation, vertebral abnormalities such as hemivertebrae and scoliosis, nail dysplasia, cardiac defects, cleft lip/palate, and (rarely) cognitive delay. When present, cardiac defects are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A variant of Robinow syndrome, associated with osteosclerosis and caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in DVL1, is characterized by normal stature, persistent macrocephaly, increased bone mineral density with skull osteosclerosis, and hearing loss, in addition to the typical features described above. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1641736
Concept ID:
C4551475
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome

Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome (WSS) is characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features, with or without additional congenital anomalies. The facial features include thick eyebrows with lateral flare, vertically narrow and downslanted palpebral fissures, widely spaced eyes, long eyelashes, wide nasal bridge, broad nasal tip, thin vermilion of the upper lip, and thick scalp hair. About 60% of affected individuals have hypertrichosis cubiti ("hairy elbows"), which was once thought to be pathognomic for the syndrome, with a majority having hypertrichosis of other body parts. Other clinical features include feeding difficulties, prenatal and postnatal growth restriction, epilepsy, ophthalmologic anomalies, congenital heart defects, hand anomalies (such as brachydactyly and clinodactyly), hypotonia, vertebral anomalies (especially fusion anomalies of the cervical spine), renal and uterine anomalies, immune dysfunction, brain malformations, and dental anomalies. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
340266
Concept ID:
C1854630
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1E

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are metabolic deficiencies in glycoprotein biosynthesis that usually cause severe mental and psychomotor retardation. Different forms of CDGs can be recognized by altered isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns of serum transferrin. For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG Ia (212065) and CDG Ib (602579). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
324784
Concept ID:
C1837396
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Schaaf-Yang syndrome

Schaaf-Yang syndrome (SYS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder that shares multiple clinical features with the genetically related Prader-Willi syndrome. It usually manifests at birth with muscular hypotonia in all and distal joint contractures in a majority of affected individuals. Gastrointestinal/feeding problems are particularly pronounced in infancy and childhood, but can transition to hyperphagia and obesity in adulthood. Respiratory distress is present in many individuals at birth, with approximately half requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation, and approximately 20% requiring tracheostomy. Skeletal manifestations such as joint contractures, scoliosis, and decreased bone mineral density are frequently observed. All affected individuals show developmental delay, resulting in intellectual disability of variable degree, from low-normal intelligence to severe intellectual disability. Other findings may include short stature, seizures, eye anomalies, and hypogonadism. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1807366
Concept ID:
C5575066
Disease or Syndrome
15.

X-linked intellectual disability Cabezas type

The Cabezas type of X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder is characterized primarily by short stature, hypogonadism, and abnormal gait, with other more variable features such as speech delay, prominent lower lip, and tremor (Cabezas et al., 2000). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
337334
Concept ID:
C1845861
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Fibrochondrogenesis 1

Fibrochondrogenesis is a severe, autosomal recessive, short-limbed skeletal dysplasia clinically characterized by a flat midface with a small nose and anteverted nares, significant shortening of all limb segments but relatively normal hands and feet, and a small bell-shaped thorax with a protuberant abdomen. Radiographically, the long bones are short and have broad metaphyseal ends, giving them a dumb-bell shape. The vertebral bodies are flat and, on lateral view, have a distinctive pinched appearance, with a hypoplastic posterior end and a rounded anterior end. The ribs are typically short and wide and have metaphyseal cupping at both ends (summary by Tompson et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Fibrochondrogenesis Fibrochondrogenesis-2 (FBCG2; 614524) is caused by mutation in the COL11A2 gene (120290) on chromosome 6p21.3. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
479768
Concept ID:
C3278138
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Teebi hypertelorism syndrome 1

Teebi hypertelorism syndrome-1 (TBHS1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertelorism with upslanting palpebral fissures, prominent forehead, broad and depressed nasal bridge with short nose, thick eyebrows, and widow's peak. Additional features include small broad hands with mild interdigital webbing and shawl scrotum. Umbilical malformations, cardiac defects, natal teeth, cleft lip/palate, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and malformations of the central nervous system (ventriculomegaly, abnormal corpus callosum) have also been reported. Development is typically normal, although some patients with developmental delays have been reported (summary by Bhoj et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Teebi Hypertelorism Syndrome Teebi hypertelorism syndrome-2 (TBHS2; 619736) is caused by mutation in the CDH11 gene (600023) on chromosome 16q21. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
989457
Concept ID:
CN306405
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Rothmund-Thomson syndrome type 2

Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is characterized by a rash that progresses to poikiloderma; sparse hair, eyelashes, and/or eyebrows; small size; skeletal and dental abnormalities; juvenile cataracts; and an increased risk for cancer, especially osteosarcoma. A variety of benign and malignant hematologic abnormalities have been reported in affected individuals. The rash of RTS typically develops between ages three and six months (occasionally as late as age two years) as erythema, swelling, and blistering on the face, subsequently spreading to the buttocks and extremities. The rash evolves over months to years into the chronic pattern of reticulated hypo- and hyperpigmentation, telangiectasias, and punctate atrophy (collectively known as poikiloderma) that persist throughout life. Hyperkeratotic lesions occur in approximately one third of individuals. Skeletal abnormalities can include radial ray defects, ulnar defects, absent or hypoplastic patella, and osteopenia. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1684753
Concept ID:
C5203410
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy

The autosomal dominant TRPV4 disorders (previously considered to be clinically distinct phenotypes before their molecular basis was discovered) are now grouped into neuromuscular disorders and skeletal dysplasias; however, the overlap within each group is considerable. Affected individuals typically have either neuromuscular or skeletal manifestations alone, and in only rare instances an overlap syndrome has been reported. The three autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders (mildest to most severe) are: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2C. Scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy. Congenital distal spinal muscular atrophy. The autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders are characterized by a congenital-onset, static, or later-onset progressive peripheral neuropathy with variable combinations of laryngeal dysfunction (i.e., vocal fold paresis), respiratory dysfunction, and joint contractures. The six autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasias (mildest to most severe) are: Familial digital arthropathy-brachydactyly. Autosomal dominant brachyolmia. Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Kozlowski type. Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, Maroteaux type. Parastremmatic dysplasia. Metatropic dysplasia. The skeletal dysplasia is characterized by brachydactyly (in all 6); the five that are more severe have short stature that varies from mild to severe with progressive spinal deformity and involvement of the long bones and pelvis. In the mildest of the autosomal dominant TRPV4 disorders life span is normal; in the most severe it is shortened. Bilateral progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) can occur with both autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders and skeletal dysplasias. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
148283
Concept ID:
C0751335
Disease or Syndrome
20.

COG1 congenital disorder of glycosylation

An extremely rare form of carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome with, in the few cases reported to date, variable signs including microcephaly, growth retardation, psychomotor retardation and facial dysmorphism. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
443957
Concept ID:
C2931011
Disease or Syndrome
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