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1.

Neurofibromatosis, type 2

Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) is characterized by bilateral vestibular schwannomas with associated symptoms of tinnitus, hearing loss, and balance dysfunction. The average age of onset is 18 to 24 years. Almost all affected individuals develop bilateral vestibular schwannomas by age 30 years. Affected individuals may also develop schwannomas of other cranial and peripheral nerves, meningiomas, ependymomas, and, very rarely, astrocytomas. Because NF2 is considered an adult-onset disease, it may be underrecognized in children, in whom skin tumors and ocular findings (retinal hamartoma, thickened optic nerves, cortical wedge cataracts, third cranial nerve palsy) may be the first manifestations. Mononeuropathy that occurs in childhood is an increasingly recognized finding; it frequently presents as a persistent facial palsy or hand/foot drop. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
18014
Concept ID:
C0027832
Neoplastic Process
2.

Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome

Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome is characterized by hemangioblastomas of the brain, spinal cord, and retina; renal cysts and clear cell renal cell carcinoma; pheochromocytoma, pancreatic cysts, and neuroendocrine tumors; endolymphatic sac tumors; and epididymal and broad ligament cysts. Cerebellar hemangioblastomas may be associated with headache, vomiting, gait disturbances, or ataxia. Spinal hemangioblastomas and related syrinx usually present with pain. Sensory and motor loss may develop with cord compression. Retinal hemangioblastomas may be the initial manifestation of VHL syndrome and can cause vision loss. Renal cell carcinoma occurs in about 70% of individuals with VHL and is the leading cause of mortality. Pheochromocytomas can be asymptomatic but may cause sustained or episodic hypertension. Pancreatic lesions often remain asymptomatic and rarely cause endocrine or exocrine insufficiency. Endolymphatic sac tumors can cause hearing loss of varying severity, which can be a presenting symptom. Cystadenomas of the epididymis are relatively common. They rarely cause problems, unless bilateral, in which case they may result in infertility. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
42458
Concept ID:
C0019562
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) is characterized by adult-onset, slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, and nystagmus. The age of onset ranges from 19 to 73 years; mean age of onset is between 43 and 52 years. Initial symptoms are gait unsteadiness, stumbling, and imbalance (in ~90%) and dysarthria (in ~10%). Eventually all persons have gait ataxia, upper-limb incoordination, intention tremor, and dysarthria. Dysphagia and choking are common. Visual disturbances may result from diplopia, difficulty fixating on moving objects, horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus, and vertical nystagmus. Hyperreflexia and extensor plantar responses occur in up to 40%-50%. Basal ganglia signs, including dystonia and blepharospasm, occur in up to 25%. Mentation is generally preserved. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
148458
Concept ID:
C0752124
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Episodic ataxia type 1

Episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) is a potassium channelopathy characterized by constant myokymia and dramatic episodes of spastic contractions of the skeletal muscles of the head, arms, and legs with loss of both motor coordination and balance. During attacks individuals may experience a number of variable symptoms including vertigo, blurred vision, diplopia, nausea, headache, diaphoresis, clumsiness, stiffening of the body, dysarthric speech, and difficulty in breathing, among others. EA1 may be associated with epilepsy. Other possible associations include delayed motor development, cognitive disability, choreoathetosis, and carpal spasm. Usually, onset is in childhood or early adolescence. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
318554
Concept ID:
C1719788
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Episodic ataxia type 2

Episodic ataxia is a genetically heterogeneous neurologic condition characterized by spells of incoordination and imbalance, often associated with progressive ataxia. Episodic ataxia type 2 is the most common form of EA (Jen et al., 2007). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of episodic ataxia, see EA1 (160120). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
314039
Concept ID:
C1720416
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Migraine, familial hemiplegic, 2

Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) falls within the category of migraine with aura. In migraine with aura (including FHM) the neurologic symptoms of aura are unequivocally localizable to the cerebral cortex or brain stem and include visual disturbance (most common), sensory loss (e.g., numbness or paresthesias of the face or an extremity), and dysphasia (difficulty with speech). FHM must include motor involvement, such as hemiparesis (weakness of an extremity). Hemiparesis occurs with at least one other symptom during FHM aura. Neurologic deficits with FHM attacks can be prolonged for hours to days and may outlast the associated migrainous headache. FHM is often earlier in onset than typical migraine, frequently beginning in the first or second decade; the frequency of attacks tends to decrease with age. Approximately 40%-50% of families with CACNA1A-FHM have cerebellar signs ranging from nystagmus to progressive, usually late-onset mild ataxia. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
355962
Concept ID:
C1865322
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Hyperimmunoglobulin D with periodic fever

Mevalonate kinase deficiency is a condition characterized by recurrent episodes of fever, which typically begin during infancy. Each episode of fever lasts about 3 to 6 days, and the frequency of the episodes varies among affected individuals. In childhood the fevers seem to be more frequent, occurring as often as 25 times a year, but as the individual gets older the episodes occur less often.

Mevalonate kinase deficiency has additional signs and symptoms, and the severity depends on the type of the condition. There are two types of mevalonate kinase deficiency: a less severe type called hyperimmunoglobulinemia D syndrome (HIDS) and a more severe type called mevalonic aciduria (MVA).

People with MVA have signs and symptoms of the condition at all times, not just during episodes of fever. Affected children have developmental delay, problems with movement and balance (ataxia), recurrent seizures (epilepsy), progressive problems with vision, and failure to gain weight and grow at the expected rate (failure to thrive). Individuals with MVA typically have an unusually small, elongated head. In childhood or adolescence, affected individuals may develop eye problems such as inflammation of the eye (uveitis), a blue tint in the white part of the eye (blue sclera), an eye disorder called retinitis pigmentosa that causes vision loss, or clouding of the lens of the eye (cataracts). Affected adults may have short stature and may develop muscle weakness (myopathy) later in life. During fever episodes, people with MVA may have an enlarged liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly), lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and skin rashes. Children with MVA who are severely affected with multiple problems may live only into early childhood; mildly affected individuals may have a normal life expectancy.

During episodes of fever, people with HIDS typically have enlargement of the lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), abdominal pain, joint pain, diarrhea, skin rashes, and headache. Occasionally they will have painful sores called aphthous ulcers around their mouth. In females, these may also occur around the vagina. Rarely, people with HIDS develop a buildup of protein deposits (amyloidosis) in the kidneys that can lead to kidney failure. Fever episodes in individuals with HIDS can be triggered by vaccinations, surgery, injury, or stress. Most people with HIDS have abnormally high levels of immune system proteins called immunoglobulin D (IgD) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the blood. It is unclear why some people with HIDS have high levels of IgD and IgA and some do not. Elevated levels of these immunoglobulins do not appear to cause any signs or symptoms. Individuals with HIDS do not have any signs and symptoms of the condition between fever episodes and typically have a normal life expectancy. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
140768
Concept ID:
C0398691
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss 11

Autosomal dominant deafness-11 is a nonsyndromic form of progressive neurosensory hearing loss with postlingual onset. Some affected individuals have mild vestibular symptoms (summary by Sun et al., 2011). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
331297
Concept ID:
C1832475
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Primary familial polycythemia due to EPO receptor mutation

Primary familial and congenital polycythemia (PFCP) is characterized by isolated erythrocytosis in an individual with a normal-sized spleen and absence of disorders causing secondary erythrocytosis. Clinical manifestations relate to the erythrocytosis and can include plethora, the hyperviscosity syndrome (headache, dizziness, fatigue, lassitude, visual and auditory disturbances, paresthesia, myalgia), altered mental status caused by hypoperfusion and local hypoxia, and arterial and/or venous thromboembolic events. Although the majority of individuals with PFCP have only mild manifestations of hyperviscosity such as dizziness or headache, some affected individuals have had severe and even fatal complications including arterial hypertension, intracerebral hemorrhage, deep vein thrombosis, coronary disease, and myocardial infarction. To date 116 affected individuals from 24 families have been reported. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1641215
Concept ID:
C4551637
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 10

Any hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the MYL2 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
331754
Concept ID:
C1834460
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss 2

Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the MYO7A gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
325485
Concept ID:
C1838701
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Familial hypokalemia-hypomagnesemia

Gitelman syndrome (GTLMNS) is an autosomal recessive renal tubular salt-wasting disorder characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. It is the most common renal tubular disorder among Caucasians (prevalence of 1 in 40,000). Most patients have onset of symptoms as adults, but some present in childhood. Clinical features include transient periods of muscle weakness and tetany, abdominal pains, and chondrocalcinosis (summary by Glaudemans et al., 2012). Gitelman syndrome is sometimes referred to as a mild variant of classic Bartter syndrome (607364). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bartter syndrome, see 607364. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
75681
Concept ID:
C0268450
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Episodic ataxia type 6

An exceedingly rare form of hereditary episodic ataxia with varying degrees of ataxia and associated findings including slurred speech, headache, confusion and hemiplegia. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
390739
Concept ID:
C2675211
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss 9

DFNA9 is an autosomal dominant adult-onset form of progressive sensorineural hearing loss associated with variable vestibular dysfunction (summary by Robertson et al., 2006). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
371327
Concept ID:
C1832425
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Episodic ataxia type 5

An extremely rare form of hereditary episodic ataxia with characteristics of recurrent episodes of vertigo and ataxia lasting several hours. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
356142
Concept ID:
C1866039
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia 4

Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is characterized by episodic syncope occurring during exercise or acute emotion. The underlying cause of these episodes is the onset of fast ventricular tachycardia (bidirectional or polymorphic). Spontaneous recovery may occur when these arrhythmias self-terminate. In other instances, ventricular tachycardia may degenerate into ventricular fibrillation and cause sudden death if cardiopulmonary resuscitation is not readily available. The mean onset of symptoms (usually a syncopal episode) is between age seven and 12 years; onset as late as the fourth decade of life has been reported. If untreated, CPVT is highly lethal, as approximately 30% of affected individuals experience at least one cardiac arrest and up to 80% have one or more syncopal spells. Sudden death may be the first manifestation of the disease. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
766961
Concept ID:
C3554047
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Sclerosteosis 2

Sclerosteosis is a severe sclerosing bone dysplasia characterized by progressive skeletal overgrowth. Syndactyly is a variable manifestation. The disorder is rare and the majority of affected individuals have been reported in the Afrikaner population of South Africa (summary by Brunkow et al., 2001). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of sclerosteosis, see SOST1 (269500). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
482032
Concept ID:
C3280402
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Childhood encephalopathy due to thiamine pyrophosphokinase deficiency

Thiamine metabolism dysfunction syndrome-5 (THMD5) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to an inborn error of thiamine metabolism. The phenotype is highly variable, but in general, affected individuals have onset in early childhood of acute encephalopathic episodes associated with increased serum and CSF lactate. These episodes result in progressive neurologic dysfunction manifest as gait disturbances, ataxia, dystonia, and spasticity, which in some cases may result in loss of ability to walk. Cognitive function is usually preserved, although mildly delayed development has been reported. These episodes are usually associated with infection and metabolic decompensation. Some patients may have recovery of some neurologic deficits (Mayr et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of disorders due to thiamine metabolism dysfunction, see THMD1 (249270). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
482496
Concept ID:
C3280866
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Chiari type I malformation

Arnold-Chiari type I malformation refers to a relatively mild degree of herniation of the posteroinferior region of the cerebellum (the cerebellar tonsils) into the cervical canal with little or no displacement of the fourth ventricle. It is characterized by one or both pointed (not rounded) cerebellar tonsils that project 5 mm below the foramen magnum, measured by a line drawn from the basion to the opisthion (McRae Line) [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
196689
Concept ID:
C0750929
Congenital Abnormality
20.

Basal ganglia calcification, idiopathic, 5

Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a neurodegenerative disorder with characteristic calcium deposits in the basal ganglia and other brain areas visualized on neuroimaging. Most affected individuals are in good health during childhood and young adulthood and typically present in the fourth to fifth decade with a gradually progressive movement disorder and neuropsychiatric symptoms. The movement disorder first manifests as clumsiness, fatigability, unsteady gait, slow or slurred speech, dysphagia, involuntary movements, or muscle cramping. Neuropsychiatric symptoms, often the first or most prominent manifestations, range from mild difficulty with concentration and memory to changes in personality and/or behavior, to psychosis and dementia. Seizures of various types occur frequently, some individuals experience chronic headache and vertigo; urinary urgency or incontinence may be present. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
815975
Concept ID:
C3809645
Disease or Syndrome
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