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1.

Cornelia de Lange syndrome 1

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) encompasses a spectrum of findings from mild to severe. Severe (classic) CdLS is characterized by distinctive facial features, growth restriction (prenatal onset; <5th centile throughout life), hypertrichosis, and upper-limb reduction defects that range from subtle phalangeal abnormalities to oligodactyly (missing digits). Craniofacial features include synophrys, highly arched and/or thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, short nasal bridge with anteverted nares, small widely spaced teeth, and microcephaly. Individuals with a milder phenotype have less severe growth, cognitive, and limb involvement, but often have facial features consistent with CdLS. Across the CdLS spectrum IQ ranges from below 30 to 102 (mean: 53). Many individuals demonstrate autistic and self-destructive tendencies. Other frequent findings include cardiac septal defects, gastrointestinal dysfunction, hearing loss, myopia, and cryptorchidism or hypoplastic genitalia. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1645760
Concept ID:
C4551851
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Alpha thalassemia-X-linked intellectual disability syndrome

Alpha-thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability (ATR-X) syndrome is characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, genital anomalies, hypotonia, and mild-to-profound developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID). Craniofacial abnormalities include small head circumference, telecanthus or widely spaced eyes, short triangular nose, tented upper lip, and thick or everted lower lip with coarsening of the facial features over time. While all affected individuals have a normal 46,XY karyotype, genital anomalies comprise a range from hypospadias and undescended testicles, to severe hypospadias and ambiguous genitalia, to normal-appearing female external genitalia. Alpha-thalassemia, observed in about 75% of affected individuals, is mild and typically does not require treatment. Osteosarcoma has been reported in a few males with germline pathogenic variants. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
337145
Concept ID:
C1845055
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Congenital myasthenic syndrome 4C

Congenital myasthenic syndrome associated with AChR deficiency is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) clinically characterized by early-onset muscle weakness with variable severity. Electrophysiologic studies show low amplitude of the miniature endplate potential (MEPP) and current (MEPC) resulting from deficiency of AChR at the endplate. Patients with mutations in the CHRNE gene may have compensatory increased expression of the fetal subunit CHRNG (100730) and may respond to treatment with cholinergic agents, pyridostigmine, or amifampridine (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
373251
Concept ID:
C1837091
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Familial infantile myasthenia

Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are a group of inherited disorders affecting the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Patients present clinically with onset of variable muscle weakness between infancy and adulthood. These disorders have been classified according to the location of the defect: presynaptic, synaptic, and postsynaptic. CMS6 is an autosomal recessive CMS resulting from a presynaptic defect; patients have onset of symptoms in infancy or early childhood and tend to have sudden apneic episodes. Treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors may be beneficial (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
140751
Concept ID:
C0393929
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Myasthenic syndrome, congenital, 1B, fast-channel

Fast-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (FCCMS) is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) characterized by early-onset progressive muscle weakness. The disorder results from kinetic abnormalities of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) channel, specifically from abnormally brief opening and activity of the channel, with a rapid decay in endplate current and a failure to reach the threshold for depolarization. Treatment with pyridostigmine or amifampridine may be helpful; quinine, quinidine, and fluoxetine should be avoided (summary by Sine et al., 2003 and Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
909200
Concept ID:
C4225405
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Autosomal recessive distal spinal muscular atrophy 1

Autosomal recessive distal hereditary motor neuronopathy-1 (HMNR1) is characterized by distal and proximal muscle weakness and diaphragmatic palsy that leads to respiratory distress. Without intervention, most infants with the severe form of the disease die before 2 years of age. Affected individuals present in infancy with inspiratory stridor, weak cry, recurrent bronchopneumonia, and swallowing difficulties. The disorder is caused by distal and progressive motor neuronopathy resulting in muscle weakness (summary by Perego et al., 2020). Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Recessive Distal Hereditary Motor Neuronopathy See also HMNR2 (605726), caused by mutation in the SIGMAR1 gene (601978); HMNR3 (607088) (encompassing Harding HMN types III and IV), which maps to chromosome 11q13; HMNR4 (611067), caused by mutation in the PLEKHG5 gene (611101); HMNR5 (614881), caused by mutation in the DNAJB2 gene (604139); HMNR6 (620011), caused by mutation in the REEP1 gene (609139); HMNR7 (619216), caused by mutation in the VWA1 gene (611901); HMNR8 (618912), caused by mutation in the SORD gene (182500); HMNR9 (620402), caused by mutation in the COQ7 gene (601683); and HMRN10 (620542), caused by mutation in the VRK1 gene (602168). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
388083
Concept ID:
C1858517
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Congenital myasthenic syndrome 5

Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are a group of inherited disorders affecting the neuromuscular junction. Patients present clinically with onset of variable muscle weakness between infancy and adulthood. These disorders have been classified according to the location of the defect: presynaptic, synaptic, and postsynaptic. Endplate acetylcholinesterase deficiency is an autosomal recessive congenital myasthenic syndrome characterized by a defect within the synapse at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Mutations in COLQ result in a deficiency of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which causes prolonged synaptic currents and action potentials due to extended residence of acetylcholine in the synaptic space. Treatment with ephedrine may be beneficial; AChE inhibitors and amifampridine should be avoided (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
400481
Concept ID:
C1864233
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Schaaf-Yang syndrome

Schaaf-Yang syndrome (SYS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder that shares multiple clinical features with the genetically related Prader-Willi syndrome. It usually manifests at birth with muscular hypotonia in all and distal joint contractures in a majority of affected individuals. Gastrointestinal/feeding problems are particularly pronounced in infancy and childhood, but can transition to hyperphagia and obesity in adulthood. Respiratory distress is present in many individuals at birth, with approximately half requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation, and approximately 20% requiring tracheostomy. Skeletal manifestations such as joint contractures, scoliosis, and decreased bone mineral density are frequently observed. All affected individuals show developmental delay, resulting in intellectual disability of variable degree, from low-normal intelligence to severe intellectual disability. Other findings may include short stature, seizures, eye anomalies, and hypogonadism. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1807366
Concept ID:
C5575066
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Encephalopathy-hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-renal tubular disease syndrome

Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is usually associated with multisystem involvement, including neurologic manifestations such as fatal neonatal encephalopathy with hypotonia; a late-onset slowly progressive multiple-system atrophy-like phenotype (neurodegeneration with autonomic failure and various combinations of parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and pyramidal dysfunction); and dystonia, spasticity, seizures, and intellectual disability. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the hallmark renal manifestation, is often the initial manifestation either as isolated renal involvement that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or associated with encephalopathy (seizures, stroke-like episodes, severe neurologic impairment) resulting in early death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), retinopathy or optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss can also be seen. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
766288
Concept ID:
C3553374
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Congenital myasthenic syndrome 11

Congenital myasthenic syndrome associated with AChR deficiency is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) clinically characterized by early-onset muscle weakness with variable severity. Electrophysiologic studies show low amplitude of the miniature endplate potential (MEPP) and current (MEPC) resulting from deficiency of AChR at the endplate. Treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors or amifampridine may be helpful (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
902189
Concept ID:
C4225367
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 12A (Zellweger)

Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome resulting from disordered peroxisome biogenesis. Affected children present in the newborn period with profound hypotonia, seizures, and inability to feed. Characteristic craniofacial anomalies, eye abnormalities, neuronal migration defects, hepatomegaly, and chondrodysplasia punctata are present. Children with this condition do not show any significant development and usually die in the first year of life (summary by Steinberg et al., 2006). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Zellweger syndrome, see 214100. Individuals with PBDs of complementation group 14 (CG14, equivalent to CGJ) have mutations in the PEX19 gene. For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
766916
Concept ID:
C3554002
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Congenital myasthenic syndrome 4A

Slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (SCCMS) is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) characterized by early-onset progressive muscle weakness. The disorder results from kinetic abnormalities of the acetylcholine receptor channel, specifically from prolonged opening and activity of the channel, which causes prolonged synaptic currents resulting in a depolarization block. This is associated with calcium overload, which may contribute to subsequent degeneration of the endplate and postsynaptic membrane. Treatment with quinine, quinidine, or fluoxetine may be helpful; acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and amifampridine should be avoided (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
908188
Concept ID:
C4225413
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Congenital myopathy with fiber type disproportion

Congenital fiber-type disproportion is a condition that primarily affects skeletal muscles, which are muscles used for movement. People with this condition typically experience muscle weakness (myopathy), particularly in the muscles of the shoulders, upper arms, hips, and thighs. Weakness can also affect the muscles of the face and muscles that control eye movement (ophthalmoplegia), sometimes causing droopy eyelids (ptosis). Individuals with congenital fiber-type disproportion generally have a long face, a high arch in the roof of the mouth (high-arched palate), and crowded teeth.

Individuals with congenital fiber-type disproportion may have joint deformities (contractures) and an abnormally curved lower back (lordosis) or a spine that curves to the side (scoliosis). Approximately 30 percent of people with this disorder experience mild to severe breathing problems related to weakness of muscles needed for breathing. Some people who experience these breathing problems require use of a machine to help regulate their breathing at night (noninvasive mechanical ventilation), and occasionally during the day as well. About 30 percent of affected individuals have difficulty swallowing due to muscle weakness in the throat. Rarely, people with this condition have a weakened and enlarged heart muscle (dilated cardiomyopathy).

The severity of congenital fiber-type disproportion varies widely. It is estimated that up to 25 percent of affected individuals experience severe muscle weakness at birth and die in infancy or childhood. Others have only mild muscle weakness that becomes apparent in adulthood. Most often, the signs and symptoms of this condition appear by age 1. The first signs of this condition are usually decreased muscle tone (hypotonia) and muscle weakness. In most cases, muscle weakness does not worsen over time, and in some instances it may improve. Although motor skills such as standing and walking may be delayed, many affected children eventually learn to walk. These individuals often have less stamina than their peers, but they remain active. Rarely, people with this condition have a progressive decline in muscle strength over time. These individuals may lose the ability to walk and require wheelchair assistance. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
108177
Concept ID:
C0546264
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Infantile-onset X-linked spinal muscular atrophy

X-linked infantile spinal muscular atrophy (XL-SMA) is characterized by congenital hypotonia, areflexia, and evidence of degeneration and loss of anterior horn cells (i.e., lower motor neurons) in the spinal cord and brain stem. Often congenital contractures and/or fractures are present. Intellect is normal. Life span is significantly shortened because of progressive ventilatory insufficiency resulting from chest muscle involvement. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
337123
Concept ID:
C1844934
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 14 (cardioencephalomyopathic type)

Any mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the OPA1 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
903789
Concept ID:
C4225163
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Congenital myasthenic syndrome 3B

Fast-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (FCCMS) is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) characterized by early-onset progressive muscle weakness. The disorder results from kinetic abnormalities of the acetylcholine receptor channel, specifically from abnormally brief opening and activity of the channel, with a rapid decay in endplate current and a failure to reach the threshold for depolarization. Treatment with pyridostigmine or amifampridine may be helpful; quinine, quinidine, and fluoxetine should be avoided (summary by Sine et al., 2003 and Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
909404
Concept ID:
C4225371
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Laryngo-onycho-cutaneous syndrome

Junctional epidermolysis bullosa 2C (JEB2C), also known as laryngoonychocutaneous syndrome (LOCS), is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skin erosions, nail dystrophy, dental anomalies, and excessive vascular granulation tissue of the conjunctiva and larynx. Onset is characterized by a hoarse cry soon after birth. Beginning in infancy, chronic skin ulcers and conjunctival lesions appear. Patients may die in childhood secondary to acute or chronic respiratory obstruction. Long-term survivors have visual loss and often require tracheostomy (McLean et al., 2003). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of the subtypes of JEB, see JEB1A (226650). Reviews Has et al. (2020) reviewed the clinical and genetic aspects, genotype-phenotype correlations, disease-modifying factors, and natural history of epidermolysis bullosa. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
272227
Concept ID:
C1328355
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Pallister-Killian syndrome

Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a dysmorphic condition involving most organ systems, but is also characterized by a tissue-limited mosaicism; most fibroblasts have 47 chromosomes with an extra small metacentric chromosome, whereas the karyotype of lymphocytes is normal. The extra metacentric chromosome is an isochromosome for part of the short arm of chromosome 12: i(12)(p10) (Peltomaki et al., 1987; Warburton et al., 1987). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
120540
Concept ID:
C0265449
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Fatal infantile hypertonic myofibrillar myopathy

Fatal infantile hypertonic myofibrillar myopathy is a severe autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy with onset in the first weeks of life after a normal neonatal period. Affected infants show rapidly progressive muscular rigidity of the trunk and limbs associated with increasing respiratory difficulty resulting in death before age 3 years (summary by Del Bigio et al., 2011). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1684001
Concept ID:
C5190691
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Kabuki syndrome

Kabuki syndrome (KS) is characterized by typical facial features (long palpebral fissures with eversion of the lateral third of the lower eyelid; arched and broad eyebrows; short columella with depressed nasal tip; large, prominent, or cupped ears), minor skeletal anomalies, persistence of fetal fingertip pads, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, and postnatal growth deficiency. Other findings may include: congenital heart defects, genitourinary anomalies, cleft lip and/or palate, gastrointestinal anomalies including anal atresia, ptosis and strabismus, and widely spaced teeth and hypodontia. Functional differences can include: increased susceptibility to infections and autoimmune disorders, seizures, endocrinologic abnormalities (including isolated premature thelarche in females), feeding problems, and hearing loss. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
162897
Concept ID:
C0796004
Congenital Abnormality
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