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Items: 14


Angiotensin I

A decapeptide that is cleaved from precursor angiotensinogen by RENIN. Angiotensin I has limited biological activity. It is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME.

Year introduced: 1987(1978)


Peptide Hormones

Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.

Year introduced: 2003


Inflammation Mediators

The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).

Year introduced: 1995



A chemically diverse group of substances produced by various tissues in the body that cause slow contraction of smooth muscle; they have other intense but varied pharmacologic activities.

Year introduced: 1995



Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.

Year introduced: /metabolism was PROTEIN METABOLISM 1963-1965



Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are considered to be larger versions of peptides that can form into complex structures such as ENZYMES and RECEPTORS.



Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.

Year introduced: 1973



Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.

Year introduced: 1987


Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists

A collective grouping for both naturally occurring and synthetic hormones, substitutes, and antagonists.

Year introduced: 1998



Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.


Biological Factors

Endogenously synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.

Year introduced: 1989



Oligopeptides which are important in the regulation of blood pressure (VASOCONSTRICTION) and fluid homeostasis via the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. These include angiotensins derived naturally from precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, and those synthesized.

Year introduced: 1978


Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins

Amino acids and chains of amino acids connected by peptide linkages.

Year introduced: 1998

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