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A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.


Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers

Drugs and compounds that induce the synthesis of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.

Year introduced: 2015


Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B6 Inducers

Drugs and compounds that induce the synthesis of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP2B6.

Year introduced: 2015


GABA Modulators

Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which BENZODIAZEPINES act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which BARBITURATES act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. GENERAL ANESTHETICS probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.

Year introduced: 1995


Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists

Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.

Year introduced: 1995


Hypnotics and Sedatives

Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.



Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.



Heterocyclic compounds known as 2-pyrimidones (or 2-hydroxypyrimidines) and 4-pyrimidones (or 4-hydroxypyrimidines) with the general formula C4H4N2O.

Year introduced: 1968(1966)



A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.

Year introduced: THONZYLAMINE was heading 1972-1984 (Prov 1972)


Heterocyclic Compounds, 1-Ring

Organic compounds that contain a ring structure made up of carbon and one or more additional elements such as nitrogen and oxygen.

Year introduced: 1998


Heterocyclic Compounds

Cyclic compounds that include atoms other than carbon in their ring structure.



A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.

Year introduced: /adv eff-pois-tox was BARBITURATE TOXICOLOGY 1963-1965


Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inducers

Drugs and compounds that induce the synthesis of CYTOCHROME P-450 ENZYMES.

Year introduced: 2015


Metabolic Side Effects of Drugs and Substances

Specific effects of drugs and substances on metabolic pathways such as those occurring through the CYTOCHROME P-450 ENZYME SYSTEM. These include effects that often result in DRUG INTERACTIONS; FOOD-DRUG INTERACTIONS; and HERB-DRUG INTERACTIONS.

Year introduced: 2015


Therapeutic Uses

Uses of chemicals which affect the course of conditions, diseases, syndromes or pathology to benefit the health of an individual.

Year introduced: 2004


Physiological Effects of Drugs

Activities which affect organs and systemic functions without regard to a particular disease.

Year introduced: 2004


Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action

Pharmacological activities at the molecular level of DRUGS and other exogenous compounds that are used to treat DISEASES and affect normal BIOCHEMISTRY.

Year introduced: 2008(2004)


Pharmacologic Actions

A broad category of chemical actions and uses that result in the prevention, treatment, cure or diagnosis of disease. Included here are drugs and chemicals that act by altering normal body functions, such as the REPRODUCTIVE CONTROL AGENTS and ANESTHETICS. Effects of chemicals on the environment are also included.

Year introduced: 2004(1999)


Chemical Actions and Uses

A group of pharmacologic activities, effects on living systems and the environment, and modes of employment of drugs and chemicals. They are broken into actions, which describe their effects, and uses, which describe how they are employed.

Year introduced: 1999


Excitatory Amino Acid Agents

Drugs used for their actions on any aspect of excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter systems. Included are drugs that act on excitatory amino acid receptors, affect the life cycle of excitatory amino acid transmitters, or affect the survival of neurons using excitatory amino acids.

Year introduced: 1995

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