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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Apr 11;97(8):4040-5.

Membrane-associated GAIP is a phosphoprotein and can be phosphorylated by clathrin-coated vesicles.

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Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0651, USA.


GAIP (G alpha interacting protein) is a member of the RGS (regulators of G protein signaling) family and accelerates the turnover of GTP bound to Galphai, Galphaq, and Galpha13. There are two pools of GAIP-a soluble and a membrane-anchored pool. The membrane-anchored pool is found on clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) and pits in rat liver and AtT-20 pituitary cells. By treatment of a GAIP-enriched rat liver fraction with alkaline phosphatase, we found that membrane-bound GAIP is phosphorylated. By immunoprecipitation carried out on [(32)P]orthophosphate-labeled AtT-20 pituitary cells stably expressing GAIP, (32)P-labeling was associated exclusively with the membrane pool of GAIP. Phosphoamino acid analysis revealed that phosphorylation of GAIP occurred largely on serine residues. Recombinant GAIP could be phosphorylated at its N terminus with purified casein kinase 2 (CK2). It could also be phosphorylated by isolated CCVs in vitro. Phosphorylation was Mn(2+)-dependent, using both purified CK2 and CCVs. Ser-24 was identified as one of the phosphorylation sites. Our results establish that GAIP is phosphorylated and that only the membrane pool is phosphorylated, suggesting that GAIP can be regulated by phosphorylation events taking place at the level of clathrin-coated pits and vesicles.

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