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J Biol Chem. 2001 Feb 2;276(5):3098-105. Epub 2000 Nov 1.

Glutathiolation of proteins by glutathione disulfide S-oxide derived from S-nitrosoglutathione. Modifications of rat brain neurogranin/RC3 and neuromodulin/GAP-43.

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Section on Metabolic Regulation, Endocrinology and Reproduction Research Branch, NICHD, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-4510, USA.


S-Nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) undergoes spontaneous degradation that generates several nitrogen-containing compounds and oxidized glutathione derivatives. We identified glutathione sulfonic acid, glutathione disulfide S-oxide (GS(O)SG), glutathione disulfide S-dioxide, and GSSG as the major decomposition products of GSNO. Each of these compounds and GSNO were tested for their efficacies to modify rat brain neurogranin/RC3 (Ng) and neuromodulin/GAP-43 (Nm). Among them, GS(O)SG was found to be the most potent in causing glutathiolation of both proteins; four glutathiones were incorporated into the four Cys residues of Ng, and two were incorporated into the two Cys residues of Nm. Ng and Nm are two in vivo substrates of protein kinase C; their phosphorylations by protein kinase C attenuate the binding affinities of both proteins for calmodulin. When compared with their respective unmodified forms, the glutathiolated Ng was a poorer substrate and glutathiolated Nm a better substrate for protein kinase C. Glutathiolation of these two proteins caused no change in their binding affinities for calmodulin. Treatment of [(35)S]cysteine-labeled rat brain slices with xanthine/xanthine oxidase or a combination of xanthine/xanthine oxidase with sodium nitroprusside resulted in an increase in cellular level of GS(O)SG. These treatments, as well as those by other oxidants, all resulted in an increase in thiolation of proteins; among them, thiolation of Ng was positively identified by immunoprecipitation. These results show that GS(O)SG is one of the most potent glutathiolating agents generated upon oxidative stress.

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