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Nucleic Acids Res. 2003 Apr 15;31(8):2196-208.

Phosphorylation of Kruppel-like factor 5 (KLF5/IKLF) at the CBP interaction region enhances its transactivation function.

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Gene Regulation Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.


The Kruppel-like factor 5 (KLF5/IKLF) belongs to the Kruppel family of genes which bind GC-rich DNA elements and activate or repress their target genes in a promoter context and/or cellular environment-dependent manner. In the present study, we used the Gal4 fusion assay system to characterize the mechanism of transactivation by KLF5. We demonstrated that the transactivation function of KLF5 was enhanced by CREB-binding protein (CBP) and blocked by wild-type but not mutant E1A. Over expression of CBP reversed the inhibition effect of E1A. With various lengths of KLF5 fusion protein, the transactivation functions were localized to 156 amino acid residues at the N-terminal region and 133 amino acid residues adjacent to the Zn finger motif. We mapped the CBP and KLF5 interaction domain to the N-terminal region of CBP (amino acids 1-232) and the N-terminal region of KLF5 (amino acids 1-238) where one of the activation functions resides. The histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity of CBP does not play a role in the transactivation function of KLF5 nor does it acetylate KLF5 in vitro. However, phosphorylation is important in KLF5 transactivation activity. Inhibition of protein kinase activity by H7 or calphostin C blocked both full-length and N-terminal fragment (amino acids 1-238) KLF5 activities. Mutation at a potential protein kinase C phosphorylation site within the CBP interaction domain of KLF5 reduces its transactivation function. Furthermore, using the GST pull-down approach, we showed that phosphorylation of KLF5 enhances its interaction with CBP. The results of the present study provide a mechanism for KLF5 transactivation function.

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