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J Biol Chem. 2004 Jun 4;279(23):24420-6. Epub 2004 Mar 29.

Formin homology domain protein (FHOD1) is a cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase I-binding protein and substrate in vascular smooth muscle cells.

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Molecular Cardiology Research Institute, Department of Medicine and Division of Cardiology, New England Medical Center Hospitals and Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA.


Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase I (PKGI) mediates vascular relaxation by nitric oxide and related nitrovasodilators and inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration. To identify VSMC proteins that interact with PKGI, the N-terminal protein interaction domain of PKGIalpha was used to screen a yeast two-hybrid human aortic cDNA library. The formin homology (FH) domain-containing protein, FHOD1, was found to interact with PKGIalpha in this screen. FH domain-containing proteins bind Rho-family GTPases and regulate actin cytoskeletal dynamics, cell migration, and gene expression. Antisera to FHOD1 were raised and used to characterize FHOD1 expression and distribution in vascular cells. FHOD1 is highly expressed in human coronary artery, aortic smooth muscle cells, and in human arterial and venous endothelial cells. In glutathione S-transferase pull-down experiments, the FHOD1 C terminus (amino acids 964-1165) binds full-length PKGI. Both in vitro and intact cell studies demonstrate that the interaction between FHOD1 and PKGI is decreased 3- to 5-fold in the presence of the PKG activator, 8Br-cGMP. Immunofluorescence studies of human VSMC show that FHOD1 is cytoplasmic and is concentrated in the perinuclear region. PKGI also directly phosphorylates FHOD1, and studies with wild-type and mutant FHOD1-derived peptides identify Ser-1131 in the FHOD1 C terminus as the unique PKGI phosphorylation site in FHOD1. These studies demonstrate that FHOD1 is a PKGI-interacting protein and substrate in VSMCs and show that cyclic GMP negatively regulates the FHOD1-PKGI interaction. Based on the known functions of FHOD1, the data are consistent with a role for FHOD1 in cyclic GMP-dependent inhibition of VSMC stress fiber formation and/or migration.

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