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J Immunol. 2004 May 15;172(10):5838-42.

Cutting edge: TREM-like transcript-1, a platelet immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif encoding costimulatory immunoreceptor that enhances, rather than inhibits, calcium signaling via SHP-2.

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Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Wellcome Trust, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom.


To date, immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIMs) have been shown to mediate inhibitory properties. We report a novel triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) family member, TREM-like transcript-1 (TLT1), which differs from the activating members because its cytoplasmic tail contains two ITIMs at Y245 and Y281. A TLT1 splice variant (TLT1sp) encodes a different cytoplasmic tail lacking ITIMs. Both isoforms are expressed in resting platelet alpha-granules, which are up-regulated to the cell surface following activation. TLT1 recruited Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-2 to the "classical" ITIM (Y281) but not the "nonclassical" ITIM (Y245). In contrast to previously characterized ITIM receptors, TLT1 enhanced, rather than inhibited, FcepsilonRI-mediated calcium signaling in rat basophilic leukemia cells, a property dependent on the SHP-2 recruiting classical Y281 ITIM. Therefore, TLT1 represents a new costimulatory ITIM immunoreceptor and is the second ITIM-bearing receptor to be identified in platelets after platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1.

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