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Biochemistry. 2005 Feb 8;44(5):1568-82.

Role of the interactions between the active site base and the substrate Schiff base in amine oxidase catalysis. Evidence from structural and spectroscopic studies of the 2-hydrazinopyridine adduct of Escherichia coli amine oxidase.

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Department of Chemistry, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045, USA.


2-Hydrazinopyridine (2HP) is an irreversible inhibitor of copper amine oxidases (CAOs). 2HP reacts directly at the C5 position of the TPQ cofactor, yielding an intense chromophore with lambda(max) approximately 430 nm (adduct I) in Escherichia coli amine oxidase (ECAO). The adduct I form of wild type (WT-ECAO) was assigned as a hydrazone on the basis of the X-ray crystal structure. The hydrazone adduct appears to be stabilized by two key hydrogen-bonding interactions between the TPQ-2HP moiety and two active site residues: the catalytic base (D383) and the conserved tyrosine residue (Y369). In this work, we have synthesized a model compound (2) for adduct I from the reaction of a TPQ model compound (1) and 2HP. NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography show that 2 exists predominantly as the azo form (lambda(max) at 414 nm). Comparison of the UV-vis and resonance Raman spectra of 2 with adduct I in WT, D383E, D383N, and Y369F forms of ECAO revealed that adduct I in WT and D383N is a tautomeric mixture where the hydrazone form is favored. In D383E adduct I, the equilibrium is further shifted in favor of the hydrazone form. UV-vis spectroscopic pH titrations of adduct I in WT, D383N, D383E, and 2 confirmed that D383 in WT adduct I is protonated at pH 7 and stabilizes the hydrazone tautomer by a short hydrogen-bonding interaction. The deprotonation of D383 (pKa approximately 9.7) in adduct I resulted in conversion of adduct I to the azo tautomer with a blue shift of the lambda(max) to 420 nm, close to that of 2. In contrast, adduct I in D383N and D383E is stable and did not show any pH-dependent spectral changes. In Y369F, adduct I was not stable and gradually converted into a new species with lambda(max) at approximately 530 nm (adduct II). A detailed mechanism for the adduct I formation in WT has been proposed that is consistent with the mechanism proposed for the oxidation of substrate by CAOs but addresses some key differences in the active site chemistry of hydrazine inhibitors and substrate amines.

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