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Genome Res. 2016 Feb;26(2):211-25. doi: 10.1101/gr.196337.115. Epub 2015 Nov 24.

Genome-wide cooperation by HAT Gcn5, remodeler SWI/SNF, and chaperone Ydj1 in promoter nucleosome eviction and transcriptional activation.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Development, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA;
2
Program in Genomics of Differentiation, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

Abstract

Chaperones, nucleosome remodeling complexes, and histone acetyltransferases have been implicated in nucleosome disassembly at promoters of particular yeast genes, but whether these cofactors function ubiquitously, as well as the impact of nucleosome eviction on transcription genome-wide, is poorly understood. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation of histone H3 and RNA polymerase II (Pol II) in mutants lacking single or multiple cofactors to address these issues for about 200 genes belonging to the Gcn4 transcriptome, of which about 70 exhibit marked reductions in H3 promoter occupancy on induction by amino acid starvation. Examining four target genes in a panel of mutants indicated that SWI/SNF, Gcn5, the Hsp70 cochaperone Ydj1, and chromatin-associated factor Yta7 are required downstream from Gcn4 binding, whereas Asf1/Rtt109, Nap1, RSC, and H2AZ are dispensable for robust H3 eviction in otherwise wild-type cells. Using ChIP-seq to interrogate all 70 exemplar genes in single, double, and triple mutants implicated Gcn5, Snf2, and Ydj1 in H3 eviction at most, but not all, Gcn4 target promoters, with Gcn5 generally playing the greatest role and Ydj1 the least. Remarkably, these three cofactors cooperate similarly in H3 eviction at virtually all yeast promoters. Defective H3 eviction in cofactor mutants was coupled with reduced Pol II occupancies for the Gcn4 transcriptome and the most highly expressed uninduced genes, but the relative Pol II levels at most genes were unaffected or even elevated. These findings indicate that nucleosome eviction is crucial for robust transcription of highly expressed genes but that other steps in gene activation are more rate-limiting for most other yeast genes.

PMID:
26602697
PMCID:
PMC4728374
DOI:
10.1101/gr.196337.115
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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