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J Family Med Prim Care. 2015 Oct-Dec;4(4):539-45. doi: 10.4103/2249-4863.174282.

Process evaluation of community monitoring under national health mission at Chandigarh, union territory: Methodology and challenges.

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Department of Community Medicine, School of Public Health, PGIMER, Chandigarh; International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, The Union South East Asia Office, New Delhi.
Department of Community Medicine, School of Public Health, PGIMER, Chandigarh.
Department of Community Medicine and Family Medicine, AIIMS, Bhubaneswar, Odisha.
Public Health Consultant, National Health Mission, Chandigarh.



Community monitoring was introduced on a pilot mode in 36 selected districts of India in a phased manner. In Chandigarh, it was introduced in the year 2009-2010. A preliminary evaluation of the program was undertaken with special emphasis on the inputs and the processes.


Quantitative methods included verification against checklists and record reviews. Nonparticipant observation was used to evaluate the conduct of trainings, interviews, and group discussions. Health system had trained health system functionaries (nursing students and Village Health Sanitation Committee [VHSC] members) to generate village-based scorecards for assessing community needs. Community needs were assessed independently for two villages under the study area to validate the scores generated by the health system.


VHSCs were formed in all 22 villages but without a chairperson or convener. The involvement of VHSC members in the community monitoring process was minimal. The conduct of group discussions was below par due to poor moderation and unequal responses from the group. The community monitoring committees at the state level had limited representation from the non-health sector, lower committees, and the nongovernmental organizations/civil societies. Agreement between the report cards generated by the investigator and the health system in the selected villages was found to be to be fair (0.369) whereas weighted kappa (0.504) was moderate.


In spite of all these limitations and challenges, the government has taken a valiant step by trying to involve the community in the monitoring of health services. The dynamic nature of the community warrants incorporation of an evaluation framework into the planning of such programs.


Chandigarh; community monitoring; process evaluation

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