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Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2016 Sep 1;311(3):C498-507. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00108.2016. Epub 2016 Jul 13.

TNF-α augments RANKL-dependent intestinal M cell differentiation in enteroid cultures.

Author information

1
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.
2
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia irwilli@emory.edu.

Abstract

Microfold (M) cells are phagocytic intestinal epithelial cells in the follicle-associated epithelium of Peyer's patches that transport particulate antigens from the gut lumen into the subepithelial dome. Differentiation of M cells from epithelial stem cells in intestinal crypts requires the cytokine receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and the transcription factor Spi-B. We used three-dimensional enteroid cultures established with small intestinal crypts from mice as a model system to investigate signaling pathways involved in M cell differentiation and the influence of other cytokines on RANKL-induced M cell differentiation. Addition of RANKL to enteroids induced expression of multiple M cell-associated genes, including Spib, Ccl9 [chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 9], Tnfaip2 (TNF-α-induced protein 2), Anxa5 (annexin A5), and Marcksl1 (myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate) in 1 day. The mature M cell marker glycoprotein 2 (Gp2) was strongly induced by 3 days and expressed by 11% of cells in enteroids. The noncanonical NF-κB pathway was required for RANKL-induced M cell differentiation in enteroids, as addition of RANKL to enteroids from mice with a null mutation in the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 14 (Map3k14) gene encoding NF-κB-inducing kinase failed to induce M cell-associated genes. While the cytokine TNF-α alone had little, if any, effect on expression of M cell-associated genes, addition of TNF-α to RANKL consistently resulted in three- to sixfold higher levels of multiple M cell-associated genes than RANKL alone. One contributing mechanism is the rapid induction by TNF-α of Relb and Nfkb2 (NF-κB subunit 2), genes encoding the two subunits of the noncanonical NF-κB heterodimer. We conclude that endogenous activators of canonical NF-κB signaling present in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue microenvironment, including TNF-α, can play a supportive role in the RANKL-dependent differentiation of M cells in the follicle-associated epithelium.

KEYWORDS:

M cells; RANKL; Spi-B; TNF-α; enteroid culture

PMID:
27413168
PMCID:
PMC5129760
DOI:
10.1152/ajpcell.00108.2016
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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