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J Biol Chem. 1993 Sep 5;268(25):18898-904.

Myristoylation of hippocalcin is linked to its calcium-dependent membrane association properties.

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Department of Physiology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.


Hippocalcin, a recently identified Ca(2+)-binding protein of the recoverin family exclusively expressed in the hippocampus, has a primary structure containing three putative Ca(2+)-binding sites (EF-hands) and a possible NH2-terminal myristoylation site. 45Ca blots demonstrated that every three EF-hand domains, expressed as fusion proteins in Escherichia coli, bind Ca2+, indicating that hippocalcin binds 3 mol of Ca2+/mol of protein. To determine whether hippocalcin is myristoylated, hippocalcin mRNA was translated in vitro in the presence of [3H]myristic acid. 3H label was resistant to hydroxylamine treatment, and replacement of NH2-terminal glycine with alanine prevented 3H label incorporation, indicating that in vitro translated hippocalcin covalently bound [3H]myristic acid at the NH2-terminal glycine. In vitro translated hippocalcin is quantitatively myristoylated, as evidenced by an electrophoretic mobility shift of [35S]methionine-labeled protein on two-dimensional gels. Native hippocalcin comigrated precisely with the in vitro translated hippocalcin on two-dimensional gels, suggesting that native hippocalcin is myristoylated. Native and in vitro translated hippocalcins, but not non-myristoylated mutagenic (Gly1-Ala1) hippocalcin, displayed Ca(2+)-dependent membrane association, indicating that myristoylation participates in its Ca(2+)-dependent membrane association properties. In vitro translated hippocalcin bound to phospholipid vesicles somewhat, however, phospholipid association was insufficient for its membrane association properties, suggesting that the NH2-terminal myristoyl moiety on hippocalcin interacts with lipid bilayers and facilitates interaction with other membrane proteins.

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