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Kabuki syndrome(KMS; KABUK1)

MedGen UID:
162897
Concept ID:
C0796004
Congenital Abnormality
Synonyms: Kabuki make-up syndrome; Niikawa-Kuroki syndrome
SNOMED CT: Kabuki make-up syndrome (313426007)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
Not genetically inherited
MedGen UID:
988794
Concept ID:
CN307044
Finding
Source: Orphanet
clinical entity without genetic inheritance.
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0016512
OMIM®: 147920; 602113
OMIM® Phenotypic series: PS147920
Orphanet: ORPHA2322

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Kabuki Syndrome
Kabuki syndrome (KS) is characterized by typical facial features (long palpebral fissures with eversion of the lateral third of the lower eyelid; arched and broad eyebrows; short columella with depressed nasal tip; large, prominent, or cupped ears), minor skeletal anomalies, persistence of fetal fingertip pads, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, and postnatal growth deficiency. Other findings may include: congenital heart defects, genitourinary anomalies, cleft lip and/or palate, gastrointestinal anomalies including anal atresia, ptosis and strabismus, and widely spaced teeth and hypodontia. Functional differences can include: increased susceptibility to infections and autoimmune disorders, seizures, endocrinologic abnormalities (including isolated premature thelarche in females), feeding problems, and hearing loss. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Margaret P Adam  |  Louanne Hudgins  |  Mark Hannibal   view full author information

Additional description

From OMIM
Kabuki syndrome is a congenital mental retardation syndrome with additional features, including postnatal dwarfism, a peculiar facies characterized by long palpebral fissures with eversion of the lateral third of the lower eyelids (reminiscent of the make-up of actors of Kabuki, a Japanese traditional theatrical form), a broad and depressed nasal tip, large prominent earlobes, a cleft or high-arched palate, scoliosis, short fifth finger, persistence of fingerpads, radiographic abnormalities of the vertebrae, hands, and hip joints, and recurrent otitis media in infancy (Niikawa et al., 1981). Genetic Heterogeneity Kabuki syndrome-2 (300867) is caused by mutation in the KDM6A gene (300128) on chromosome Xp11.  http://www.omim.org/entry/147920

Clinical features

From HPO
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Hydronephrosis
MedGen UID:
42531
Concept ID:
C0020295
Disease or Syndrome
Severe distention of the kidney with dilation of the renal pelvis and calices.
Ureteropelvic junction obstruction
MedGen UID:
105482
Concept ID:
C0521619
Anatomical Abnormality
Blockage of urine flow from the renal pelvis to the proximal ureter.
Crossed fused renal ectopia
MedGen UID:
372130
Concept ID:
C1835796
Congenital Abnormality
A developmental anomaly in which the kidneys are fused and localized on the same side of the midline. This anomaly is thought to result from disruption of the normal embryologic migration of the kidneys.
Micropenis
MedGen UID:
1633603
Concept ID:
C4551492
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormally small penis. At birth, the normal penis is about 3 cm (stretched length from pubic tubercle to tip of penis) with micropenis less than 2.0-2.5 cm.
Short 5th finger
MedGen UID:
334269
Concept ID:
C1842878
Congenital Abnormality
Hypoplasia (congenital reduction in size) of the fifth finger, also known as the little finger.
Coarctation of aorta
MedGen UID:
1617
Concept ID:
C0003492
Congenital Abnormality
Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing or constriction of a segment of the aorta.
Atrial septal defect
MedGen UID:
6753
Concept ID:
C0018817
Congenital Abnormality
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital abnormality of the interatrial septum that enables blood flow between the left and right atria via the interatrial septum.
Ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
42366
Concept ID:
C0018818
Congenital Abnormality
A hole between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart. The defect is centered around the most superior aspect of the ventricular septum.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Growth delay
MedGen UID:
99124
Concept ID:
C0456070
Pathologic Function
A deficiency or slowing down of growth pre- and postnatally.
Postnatal growth retardation
MedGen UID:
395343
Concept ID:
C1859778
Finding
Slow or limited growth after birth.
Imperforate anus
MedGen UID:
1997
Concept ID:
C0003466
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital absence of the anus, i.e., the opening at the bottom end of the intestinal tract.
Intestinal malrotation
MedGen UID:
113153
Concept ID:
C0221210
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of the intestinal rotation and fixation that normally occurs during the development of the gut. This can lead to volvulus, or twisting of the intestine that causes obstruction and necrosis.
Anal stenosis
MedGen UID:
82644
Concept ID:
C0262374
Anatomical Abnormality
Abnormal narrowing of the anal opening.
Anoperineal fistula
MedGen UID:
324365
Concept ID:
C1835798
Anatomical Abnormality
The presence of a fistula (abnormal tunnel) between the anal canal and the perineum.
Feeding difficulties in infancy
MedGen UID:
436211
Concept ID:
C2674608
Finding
Impaired feeding performance of an infant as manifested by difficulties such as weak and ineffective sucking, brief bursts of sucking, and falling asleep during sucking. There may be difficulties with chewing or maintaining attention.
Malabsorption
MedGen UID:
811453
Concept ID:
C3714745
Finding
Impaired ability to absorb one or more nutrients from the intestine.
Macrotia
MedGen UID:
488785
Concept ID:
C0152421
Congenital Abnormality
Median longitudinal ear length greater than two standard deviations above the mean and median ear width greater than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, apparent increase in length and width of the pinna (subjective).
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Posteriorly rotated ears
MedGen UID:
96566
Concept ID:
C0431478
Congenital Abnormality
A type of abnormal location of the ears in which the position of the ears is characterized by posterior rotation (the superior part of the ears is rotated towards the back of the head, and the inferior part of the ears towards the front).
Hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
235586
Concept ID:
C1384666
Disease or Syndrome
A decreased magnitude of the sensory perception of sound.
Protruding ear
MedGen UID:
343309
Concept ID:
C1855285
Finding
Angle formed by the plane of the ear and the mastoid bone greater than the 97th centile for age (objective); or, outer edge of the helix more than 2 cm from the mastoid at the point of maximum distance (objective).
Dysarthria
MedGen UID:
8510
Concept ID:
C0013362
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Dysarthric speech is a general description referring to a neurological speech disorder characterized by poor articulation. Depending on the involved neurological structures, dysarthria may be further classified as spastic, flaccid, ataxic, hyperkinetic and hypokinetic, or mixed.
Hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
9335
Concept ID:
C0020255
Disease or Syndrome
Hydrocephalus is an active distension of the ventricular system of the brain resulting from inadequate passage of CSF from its point of production within the cerebral ventricles to its point of absorption into the systemic circulation.
Intellectual disability, mild
MedGen UID:
10044
Concept ID:
C0026106
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Mild intellectual disability is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range of 50-69.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Focal impaired awareness seizure
MedGen UID:
543022
Concept ID:
C0270834
Disease or Syndrome
Focal impaired awareness seizure (or focal seizure with impaired or lost awareness) is a type of focal-onset seizure characterized by some degree (which may be partial) of impairment of the person's awareness of themselves or their surroundings at any point during the seizure.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Bilateral tonic-clonic seizure with focal onset
MedGen UID:
164077
Concept ID:
C0877017
Disease or Syndrome
A bilateral tonic-clonic seizure with focal onset is a focal-onset seizure which progresses into a bilateral tonic-clonic phase.
Lateral ventricle dilatation
MedGen UID:
383904
Concept ID:
C1856409
Pathologic Function
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Hemolytic anemia
MedGen UID:
1916
Concept ID:
C0002878
Disease or Syndrome
A type of anemia caused by premature destruction of red blood cells (hemolysis).
Joint dislocation
MedGen UID:
41614
Concept ID:
C0012691
Injury or Poisoning
Displacement or malalignment of joints.
Congenital hip dislocation
MedGen UID:
9258
Concept ID:
C0019555
Disease or Syndrome
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Abnormal vertebral morphology
MedGen UID:
371742
Concept ID:
C1834129
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormality of one or more of the vertebrae.
Joint hypermobility
MedGen UID:
336793
Concept ID:
C1844820
Finding
The capability that a joint (or a group of joints) has to move, passively and/or actively, beyond normal limits along physiological axes.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Developmental dysplasia of the hip
MedGen UID:
1640560
Concept ID:
C4551649
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital dysplasia of the hip (CDH) is an abnormality of the seating of the femoral head in the acetabulum. Its severity ranges from mild instability of the femoral head with slight capsular laxity, through moderate lateral displacement of the femoral head, without loss of contact of the head with the acetabulum, up to complete dislocation of the femoral head from the acetabulum. It is one of the most common skeletal congenital anomalies (summary by Sollazzo et al., 2000). Acetabular dysplasia is an idiopathic, localized developmental dysplasia of the hip that is characterized by a shallow hip socket and decreased coverage of the femoral head. Its radiologic criteria include the center-edge angle of Wiberg, the Sharp angle, and the acetabular roof obliquity. Most patients with acetabular dysplasia develop osteoarthritis (165720) after midlife, and even mild acetabular dysplasia can cause hip osteoarthritis (summary by Mabuchi et al., 2006). CDH occurs as an isolated anomaly or with more general disorders represented by several syndromes and with chromosomal abnormalities such as trisomy 18 (Wynne-Davies, 1970). Genetic Heterogeneity of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Developmental dysplasia of the hip-1 (DDH1) maps to chromosome 13q22; DDH2 (615612) maps to chromosome 3p21. DDH3 (620690) is caused by mutation in the LRP1 gene (107770) on chromosome 12q13.
Recurrent infections
MedGen UID:
65998
Concept ID:
C0239998
Finding
Increased susceptibility to infections.
Autoimmune thrombocytopenia
MedGen UID:
116621
Concept ID:
C0242584
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of thrombocytopenia in combination with detection of antiplatelet antibodies.
Recurrent otitis media
MedGen UID:
155436
Concept ID:
C0747085
Disease or Syndrome
Increased susceptibility to otitis media, as manifested by recurrent episodes of otitis media.
Recurrent aspiration pneumonia
MedGen UID:
152887
Concept ID:
C0747651
Disease or Syndrome
Increased susceptibility to aspiration pneumonia, defined as pneumonia due to breathing in foreign material, as manifested by a medical history of repeated episodes of aspiration pneumonia.
Weak cry
MedGen UID:
65892
Concept ID:
C0234860
Finding
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Abnormality of the dentition
MedGen UID:
78084
Concept ID:
C0262444
Finding
Any abnormality of the teeth.
Sparse eyebrow
MedGen UID:
371332
Concept ID:
C1832446
Finding
Decreased density/number of eyebrow hairs.
Eversion of lateral third of lower eyelids
MedGen UID:
324367
Concept ID:
C1835801
Finding
Long palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
340300
Concept ID:
C1849340
Finding
Distance between medial and lateral canthi is more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (objective); or, apparently increased length of the palpebral fissures.
Wide nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
341441
Concept ID:
C1849367
Finding
Increased breadth of the nasal bridge (and with it, the nasal root).
Depressed nasal tip
MedGen UID:
347214
Concept ID:
C1859717
Finding
Decreased distance from the nasal tip to the nasal base.
Highly arched eyebrow
MedGen UID:
358357
Concept ID:
C1868571
Finding
Increased height of the central portion of the eyebrow, forming a crescent, semicircular, or inverted U shape.
Cleft palate
MedGen UID:
756015
Concept ID:
C2981150
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).
Hirsutism
MedGen UID:
42461
Concept ID:
C0019572
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormally increased hair growth referring to a male pattern of body hair (androgenic hair).
Cafe-au-lait spot
MedGen UID:
113157
Concept ID:
C0221263
Finding
Cafe-au-lait spots are hyperpigmented lesions that can vary in color from light brown to dark brown with smooth borders and having a size of 1.5 cm or more in adults and 0.5 cm or more in children.
Preauricular pit
MedGen UID:
120587
Concept ID:
C0266610
Congenital Abnormality
Small indentation anterior to the insertion of the ear.
Prominent fingertip pads
MedGen UID:
322758
Concept ID:
C1835807
Finding
A soft tissue prominence of the ventral aspects of the fingertips. The term "persistent fetal fingertip pads" is often used as a synonym, but should better not be used because it implies knowledge of history of the patient which often does not exist.
Prominent eyelashes
MedGen UID:
869033
Concept ID:
C4023450
Finding
Eyelashes that draw the attention of the viewer due to increased density and/or length and/or curl without meeting the criteria of trichomegaly.
Congenital hypothyroidism
MedGen UID:
41344
Concept ID:
C0010308
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital hypothyroidism is a partial or complete loss of function of the thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) that affects infants from birth (congenital). The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped tissue in the lower neck. It makes iodine-containing hormones that play an important role in regulating growth, brain development, and the rate of chemical reactions in the body (metabolism). People with congenital hypothyroidism have lower-than-normal levels of these important hormones.\n\nCongenital hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland fails to develop or function properly. In 80 to 85 percent of cases, the thyroid gland is absent, severely reduced in size (hypoplastic), or abnormally located. These cases are classified as thyroid dysgenesis. In the remainder of cases, a normal-sized or enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) is present, but production of thyroid hormones is decreased or absent. Most of these cases occur when one of several steps in the hormone synthesis process is impaired; these cases are classified as thyroid dyshormonogenesis. Less commonly, reduction or absence of thyroid hormone production is caused by impaired stimulation of the production process (which is normally done by a structure at the base of the brain called the pituitary gland), even though the process itself is unimpaired. These cases are classified as central (or pituitary) hypothyroidism.\n\nSigns and symptoms of congenital hypothyroidism result from the shortage of thyroid hormones. Affected babies may show no features of the condition, although some babies with congenital hypothyroidism are less active and sleep more than normal. They may have difficulty feeding and experience constipation. If untreated, congenital hypothyroidism can lead to intellectual disability and slow growth. In the United States and many other countries, all hospitals test newborns for congenital hypothyroidism. If treatment begins in the first two weeks after birth, infants usually develop normally.\n\nCongenital hypothyroidism can also occur as part of syndromes that affect other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. Some common forms of syndromic hypothyroidism include Pendred syndrome, Bamforth-Lazarus syndrome, and brain-lung-thyroid syndrome.
Premature thelarche
MedGen UID:
98416
Concept ID:
C0425772
Finding
Premature development of the breasts.
Ptosis
MedGen UID:
2287
Concept ID:
C0005745
Disease or Syndrome
The upper eyelid margin is positioned 3 mm or more lower than usual and covers the superior portion of the iris (objective); or, the upper lid margin obscures at least part of the pupil (subjective).
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.
Blue sclerae
MedGen UID:
154236
Concept ID:
C0542514
Finding
An abnormal bluish coloration of the sclera.
Bilateral ptosis
MedGen UID:
356120
Concept ID:
C1865916
Disease or Syndrome

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVKabuki syndrome
Follow this link to review classifications for Kabuki syndrome in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Barili V, Ambrosini E, Uliana V, Bellini M, Vitetta G, Martorana D, Cannizzaro IR, Taiani A, De Sensi E, Caggiati P, Hilton S, Banka S, Percesepe A
Genes (Basel) 2023 Jun 10;14(6) doi: 10.3390/genes14061241. PMID: 37372421Free PMC Article
Adam MP, Banka S, Bjornsson HT, Bodamer O, Chudley AE, Harris J, Kawame H, Lanpher BC, Lindsley AW, Merla G, Miyake N, Okamoto N, Stumpel CT, Niikawa N; Kabuki Syndrome Medical Advisory Board
J Med Genet 2019 Feb;56(2):89-95. Epub 2018 Dec 4 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2018-105625. PMID: 30514738
Hefner MA, Fassi E
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2017 Dec;175(4):407-416. Epub 2017 Oct 31 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31589. PMID: 29088501

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Stadelmaier RT, Kenna MA, Barrett D, Mullen TE, Bodamer O, Agrawal PB, Robson CD, Wojcik MH
Am J Med Genet A 2021 Dec;185(12):3770-3783. Epub 2021 Aug 9 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62450. PMID: 34369642Free PMC Article
Wang YR, Xu NX, Wang J, Wang XM
World J Pediatr 2019 Dec;15(6):528-535. Epub 2019 Oct 5 doi: 10.1007/s12519-019-00309-4. PMID: 31587141
Adam MP, Banka S, Bjornsson HT, Bodamer O, Chudley AE, Harris J, Kawame H, Lanpher BC, Lindsley AW, Merla G, Miyake N, Okamoto N, Stumpel CT, Niikawa N; Kabuki Syndrome Medical Advisory Board
J Med Genet 2019 Feb;56(2):89-95. Epub 2018 Dec 4 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2018-105625. PMID: 30514738
Vajravelu ME, De León DD
Curr Opin Pediatr 2018 Aug;30(4):568-575. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000645. PMID: 29750770Free PMC Article
Bokinni Y
J Hum Genet 2012 Apr;57(4):223-7. Epub 2012 Mar 22 doi: 10.1038/jhg.2012.28. PMID: 22437206

Diagnosis

Castiglioni S, Di Fede E, Bernardelli C, Lettieri A, Parodi C, Grazioli P, Colombo EA, Ancona S, Milani D, Ottaviano E, Borghi E, Massa V, Ghelma F, Vignoli A, Lesma E, Gervasini C
Genes (Basel) 2022 Mar 15;13(3) doi: 10.3390/genes13030514. PMID: 35328068Free PMC Article
Boniel S, Szymańska K, Śmigiel R, Szczałuba K
Genes (Basel) 2021 Mar 25;12(4) doi: 10.3390/genes12040468. PMID: 33805950Free PMC Article
Wang YR, Xu NX, Wang J, Wang XM
World J Pediatr 2019 Dec;15(6):528-535. Epub 2019 Oct 5 doi: 10.1007/s12519-019-00309-4. PMID: 31587141
Adam MP, Banka S, Bjornsson HT, Bodamer O, Chudley AE, Harris J, Kawame H, Lanpher BC, Lindsley AW, Merla G, Miyake N, Okamoto N, Stumpel CT, Niikawa N; Kabuki Syndrome Medical Advisory Board
J Med Genet 2019 Feb;56(2):89-95. Epub 2018 Dec 4 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2018-105625. PMID: 30514738
Bögershausen N, Wollnik B
Clin Genet 2013 Mar;83(3):201-11. Epub 2012 Nov 26 doi: 10.1111/cge.12051. PMID: 23131014

Therapy

Bianchi C, Margot H, Fernandes H, Pasquet M, Priqueler L, Roy-Peaud F, Bauduer F, Bayart S, Garnier N, Fain O, Van Gils J, Joly SB, Rialland F, Paillard C, Deparis M, Lambilliotte A, Leblanc T, Fahd M, Leverger G, Héritier S, Geneviève D, Rieux-Laucat F, Picard C, Neyraud C, Aladjidi N
Br J Haematol 2024 May;204(5):1899-1907. Epub 2024 Mar 3 doi: 10.1111/bjh.19387. PMID: 38432067
Jung YL, Hung C, Choi J, Lee EA, Bodamer O
Hum Mol Genet 2023 Jun 19;32(13):2251-2261. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddad059. PMID: 37043208
Schiavo E, Martini B, Attardi E, Consonni F, Ciullini Mannurita S, Coniglio ML, Tellini M, Chiocca E, Fotzi I, Luti L, D'Alba I, Veltroni M, Favre C, Gambineri E
Front Immunol 2021;12:790455. Epub 2022 Jan 4 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.790455. PMID: 35058929Free PMC Article
van Montfort L, Gerver WJM, Kooger BLS, Plat J, Bierau J, Stumpel CTRM, Schott DA
Horm Res Paediatr 2021;94(7-8):285-296. Epub 2021 Oct 4 doi: 10.1159/000519963. PMID: 34607328
Lord K, De León DD
Clin Perinatol 2018 Mar;45(1):61-74. Epub 2017 Dec 6 doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2017.10.007. PMID: 29406007

Prognosis

Zenker M, Mohnike K, Palm K
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2023;14:1013874. Epub 2023 Mar 30 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2023.1013874. PMID: 37065762Free PMC Article
Cheon CK, Choi HY, Park SH, Jung JH, Kim SJ
Ophthalmic Genet 2021 Apr;42(2):101-104. Epub 2020 Dec 18 doi: 10.1080/13816810.2020.1861308. PMID: 33334222
Ruault V, Corsini C, Duflos C, Akouete S, Georgescu V, Abaji M, Alembick Y, Alix E, Amiel J, Amouroux C, Barat-Houari M, Baumann C, Bonnard A, Boursier G, Boute O, Burglen L, Busa T, Cordier MP, Cormier-Daire V, Delrue MA, Doray B, Faivre L, Fradin M, Gilbert-Dussardier B, Giuliano F, Goldenberg A, Gorokhova S, Héron D, Isidor B, Jacquemont ML, Jacquette A, Jeandel C, Lacombe D, Le Merrer M, Sang KHLQ, Lyonnet S, Manouvrier S, Michot C, Moncla A, Moutton S, Odent S, Pelet A, Philip N, Pinson L, Reversat J, Roume J, Sanchez E, Sanlaville D, Sarda P, Schaefer E, Till M, Touitou I, Toutain A, Willems M, Gatinois V, Geneviève D
Am J Med Genet A 2020 Mar;182(3):446-453. Epub 2019 Dec 26 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61462. PMID: 31876365
Bang TJ, Richards JC, Olson AL, Groshong SD, Gelfand EW, Lynch DA
J Thorac Imaging 2018 Nov;33(6):377-383. doi: 10.1097/RTI.0000000000000350. PMID: 30067570
Vajravelu ME, De León DD
Curr Opin Pediatr 2018 Aug;30(4):568-575. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000645. PMID: 29750770Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Golden CS, Williams S, Serrano MA
Birth Defects Res 2023 Nov 15;115(19):1809-1824. Epub 2023 May 9 doi: 10.1002/bdr2.2183. PMID: 37158694Free PMC Article
Zenker M, Mohnike K, Palm K
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2023;14:1013874. Epub 2023 Mar 30 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2023.1013874. PMID: 37065762Free PMC Article
Di Candia F, Fontana P, Paglia P, Falco M, Rosano C, Piscopo C, Cappuccio G, Siano MA, De Brasi D, Mandato C, De Maggio I, Squeo GM, Monica MD, Scarano G, Lonardo F, Strisciuglio P, Merla G, Melis D
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Theodore-Oklota C, Egan S, Paulich M, Evans CJ, Hartman DS, Hoffman DL, Björnsson HT
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Eur J Med Genet 2021 Jun;64(6):104210. Epub 2021 Mar 30 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2021.104210. PMID: 33794347
Kostopoulou E, Dastamani A, Güemes M, Clement E, Caiulo S, Shanmugananda P, Dattani M, Gilbert C, Hurst JA, Shah P
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2021 Mar;94(3):399-412. Epub 2021 Jan 31 doi: 10.1111/cen.14393. PMID: 33345357
Mone F, Eberhardt RY, Morris RK, Hurles ME, McMullan DJ, Maher ER, Lord J, Chitty LS, Giordano JL, Wapner RJ, Kilby MD; CODE Study Collaborators
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Liu S, Hong X, Shen C, Shi Q, Wang J, Xiong F, Qiu Z
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